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Electron
The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ... (denoted by the symbol or ) whose electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: ''positive'' and ''negative'' (commonly carried by protons and electrons resp ... is negative one elementary charge The elementary charge, usually denoted by or sometimes e is the electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric ch .... Electrons belong to the first generation A generation is "all of the people born and living at about th ...
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Atomic Orbital
In atomic theory Atomic theory is the scientific theory A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world and universe that can be repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method The scientific method is a ... and quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quan ..., an atomic orbital is a mathematical function In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ... describing the location and wave-like behavior of an electron in an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical phys ...
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ... principle which states that two or more identical fermion In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics and generally has half odd integer spin: spin 1/2, Spin (physics)#Higher spins, spin 3/2, etc. These particles obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Fermions include ...s (particles with half-integer spin Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) or South Pacific Island Network * Spin (company), an American scooter-sharing system * SPiN, a chain of table tennis lounges Computing * SPIN model checker, Gerard Holzmann's tool fo ...) cannot occupy the same quantum state In quantum physics Quantum mechanics ...
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Lepton
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin (physics), spin ) that does not undergo strong interactions. Two main classes of leptons exist: electric charge, charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons or muons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. The best known of all leptons is the electron. There are six types of leptons, known as ''flavour (particle physics), flavours'', grouped in three ''Generation (particle physics), generations''. The standard model, first-generation leptons, also called ''electronic leptons'', comprise the electron () and the electron neutrino (); the second are the ''muonic leptons'', comprising the muon () and the muon neutrino (); and the third are the ''tauonic leptons'', comprising the ...
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Lepton
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin (physics), spin ) that does not undergo strong interactions. Two main classes of leptons exist: electric charge, charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons or muons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. The best known of all leptons is the electron. There are six types of leptons, known as ''flavour (particle physics), flavours'', grouped in three ''Generation (particle physics), generations''. The standard model, first-generation leptons, also called ''electronic leptons'', comprise the electron () and the electron neutrino (); the second are the ''muonic leptons'', comprising the muon () and the muon neutrino (); and the third are the ''tauonic leptons'', comprising the ...
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Positron
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle s (left) and antiparticles (right). From top to bottom; electron The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed ... or the antimatter In modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onward or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Notable branches of modern physics include quantum physics, special ... counterpart of the electron The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: .... It has an electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an el ...
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Spin (physics)
Spin is an form of carried by s, and thus by composite particles (s) and . Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, the other being ''orbital angular momentum''. The orbital is the quantum-mechanical counterpart to the classical angular momentum of and appears when there is periodic structure to its wavefunction as the angle varies. For photons, spin is the quantum-mechanical counterpart of the of light; for electrons, the spin has no classical counterpart. The existence of electron spin angular momentum is from experiments, such as the , in which silver atoms were observed to possess two possible discrete angular momenta despite having no orbital angular momentum. The existence of the electron spin can also be inferred theoretically from and from the —and vice versa, given the particular spin of the electron, one may derive the Pauli exclusion principle. Spin is described mathematically as a vector for some particles such as photons, and as s a ...
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Proton
A proton is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ..., symbol or , with a positive electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be ''positive'' or ''negative'' (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like ch ... of +1''e'' elementary charge The elementary charge, usually denoted by or sometimes e is the electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric ch ... and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (no ...
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Elementary Particle
In , an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental s (s, s, s, and s), which generally are " particles" and " particles", as well as the fundamental s (s and the ), which generally are "" that mediate among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a . Ordinary matter is composed of s, once presumed to be elementary particles—''atomos'' meaning "unable to be cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1905, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of . Subatomic constituents of the atom were first identified in the early 1930s; the and the , along with the , the particle of . At that time, the recent advent of was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field , a paradox still eludin ...
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Elementary Particle
In , an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental s (s, s, s, and s), which generally are " particles" and " particles", as well as the fundamental s (s and the ), which generally are "" that mediate among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a . Ordinary matter is composed of s, once presumed to be elementary particles—''atomos'' meaning "unable to be cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1905, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of . Subatomic constituents of the atom were first identified in the early 1930s; the and the , along with the , the particle of . At that time, the recent advent of was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field , a paradox still eludin ...
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Reduced Planck Constant
The Planck constant, or Planck's constant, is a fundamental physical constant A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be Quantification (science), quantified by measurement. A physi ... denoted h, and is of fundamental importance in quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quan .... A photon The photon ( el, φῶς, phōs, light) is a type of elementary particle In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be eleme ...'s energy is equal to its frequency multiplied by the Planck constant. Due to mass ...
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Electric Charge
Electric charge is the physical property A physical property is any property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have th ... of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particl ... that causes it to experience a force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force ... when placed in an electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field Field may refer ...
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Weak Interaction
In nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related ent ... and particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of that studies the nature of the particles that constitute and . Although the word ' can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. , gas particles, or even household d ..., the weak interaction, which is also often called the weak force or weak nuclear force, is one of the four known fundamental interactions In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Sp ..., with the others being electromagnetism Electro ...
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