Deductive
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Deductive
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ... from one or more statement Statement or statements may refer to: Common uses *Statement (computer science), the smallest standalone element of an imperative programming language *Statement (logic), declarative sentence that is either true or false *Statement, a Sentence_(lin ...s (premises) to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premise A premise or premiss is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a Logical consequence, conclusion. It is an assumption that something is true. Explanation In logic, an argument requires a Set (mathematics), set of (at least) ...s ...
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Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which a body of observations is synthesized to come up with a general principle. Inductive reasoning is distinct from Deductive reasoning, ''deductive'' reasoning. If the premises are correct, the conclusion of a deductive argument is ''certain''; in contrast, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument is ''probable'', based upon the evidence given. Types Generalization A generalization (more accurately, an ''inductive generalization'') proceeds from a premise about a Sample (statistics), sample to a conclusion about the statistical population, population. The observation obtained from this sample is projected onto the broader population. : The proportion Q of the sample has attribute A. : Therefore, the proportion Q of the population has attribute A. For example, say there are 20 balls—either black or white—in an urn. To estimate their respective numbers, you draw a sample of four balls and find that three are black ...
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Soundness
In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, account, re ..., more precisely in deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more argument (logic), statements (premises) to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links pre ..., an argument In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, ... is sound if it is both valid in form and its premises are true. Soundness also has a related meaning in mathematical logic Mathematical logic, also called formal logic, is a ...
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