Curve Fitting
Curve fitting is the process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit to a series of data points, possibly subject to constraints. Curve fitting can involve either interpolation, where an exact fit to the data is required, or smoothing, in which a "smooth" function is constructed that approximately fits the data. A related topic is regression analysis, which focuses more on questions of statistical inference such as how much uncertainty is present in a curve that is fit to data observed with random errors. Fitted curves can be used as an aid for data visualization, to infer values of a function where no data are available, and to summarize the relationships among two or more variables. Extrapolation refers to the use of a fitted curve beyond the range of the observed data, and is subject to a degree of uncertainty since it may reflect the method used to construct the curve as much as it reflects the observed data. For linearalgebraic analysis o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regression Pic Assymetrique
Regression or regressions may refer to: Science * Marine regression, coastal advance due to falling sea level, the opposite of marine transgression * Regression (medicine), a characteristic of diseases to express lighter symptoms or less extent (mainly for tumors), without disappearing totally * Regression (psychology), a defensive reaction to some unaccepted impulses * Nodal regression, the movement of the nodes of an object in orbit, in the opposite direction to the motion of the object Statistics * Regression analysis, a statistical technique for estimating the relationships among variables. There are several types of regression: ** Linear regression ** Simple linear regression ** Logistic regression ** Nonlinear regression ** Nonparametric regression ** Robust regression ** Stepwise regression * Regression toward the mean, a common statistical phenomenon Computing * Software regression, the appearance of a bug which was absent in a previous revision ** Regression testing ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slope
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the letter ''m'' is used for slope, but its earliest use in English appears in O'Brien (1844) who wrote the equation of a straight line as and it can also be found in Todhunter (1888) who wrote it as "''y'' = ''mx'' + ''c''". Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient ("rise over run"), giving the same number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative "rise". The line may be practical – as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan. The ''steepness'', incline, or grade of a line is measured by the absolute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Trigonometric Functions
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are real functions which relate an angle of a rightangled triangle to ratios of two side lengths. They are widely used in all sciences that are related to geometry, such as navigation, solid mechanics, celestial mechanics, geodesy, and many others. They are among the simplest periodic functions, and as such are also widely used for studying periodic phenomena through Fourier analysis. The trigonometric functions most widely used in modern mathematics are the sine, the cosine, and the tangent. Their reciprocals are respectively the cosecant, the secant, and the cotangent, which are less used. Each of these six trigonometric functions has a corresponding inverse function, and an analog among the hyperbolic functions. The oldest definitions of trigonometric functions, related to rightangle triangles, define them only for acute angles. To extend the sine and cos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gohana Inverted Scurve
Gohana is a city and a municipal council, near Sonipat city in the Sonipat district of the Indian state of Haryana. Geography Gohana is located at . Its topography consists mainly of low plains, but its southcentral area has a small plateau. Gohana's 43 km2 (27.95sq mile) land area has an average elevation of 225 metres (738 feet). Demographics Gohana city is situated in the Sonipat district of Haryana. It is the main subdivision with a population of more than 300,000 (as of 2011). It has its own municipality and a constituency for Haryana Vidhan Sabha. There are around 86 Villages in Gohana. It is located in the west of the Sonipat District, 40 km from the town of Sonipat. Earlier, it was part of Rohtak district. Gohana is the oldest tehsil of Haryana. It was declared a tehsil in 1826 by the British, and some structures which show evidence of that time are still standing in the city: the City police station, Government Boys' Senior Secondary School, Govern ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inflection Point
In differential calculus and differential geometry, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (British English: inflexion) is a point on a smooth plane curve at which the curvature changes sign. In particular, in the case of the graph of a function, it is a point where the function changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa. For the graph of a function of differentiability class (''f'', its first derivative ''f, and its second derivative ''f'''', exist and are continuous), the condition ''f'' = 0'' can also be used to find an inflection point since a point of ''f'' = 0'' must be passed to change ''f'''' from a positive value (concave upward) to a negative value (concave downward) or vice versa as ''f'''' is continuous; an inflection point of the curve is where ''f'' = 0'' and changes its sign at the point (from positive to negative or from negative to positive). A point where the second derivative vanishes but do ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Magnitude (mathematics)
In mathematics, the magnitude or size of a mathematical object is a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind. More formally, an object's magnitude is the displayed result of an order theory, ordering (or ranking)—of the class (mathematics), class of objects to which it belongs. In physics, magnitude can be defined as quantity or distance. History The Greeks distinguished between several types of magnitude, including: *Positive fractions *Line segments (ordered by length) *Geometric shape, Plane figures (ordered by area) *Solid geometry, Solids (ordered by volume) *Angle, Angles (ordered by angular magnitude) They proved that the first two could not be the same, or even isomorphic systems of magnitude. They did not consider negative number, negative magnitudes to be meaningful, and ''magnitude'' is still primarily used in contexts in which zero is either the smallest size or less than all possible sizes. Numbers Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Runge's Phenomenon
In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, Runge's phenomenon () is a problem of oscillation at the edges of an interval that occurs when using polynomial interpolation with polynomials of high degree over a set of equispaced interpolation points. It was discovered by Carl David Tolmé Runge (1901) when exploring the behavior of errors when using polynomial interpolation to approximate certain functions. The discovery was important because it shows that going to higher degrees does not always improve accuracy. The phenomenon is similar to the Gibbs phenomenon in Fourier series approximations. Introduction The Weierstrass approximation theorem states that for every continuous function ''f''(''x'') defined on an interval 'a'',''b'' there exists a set of polynomial functions ''P''''n''(''x'') for ''n''=0, 1, 2, …, each of degree at most ''n'', that approximates ''f''(''x'') with uniform convergence over 'a'',''b''as ''n'' tends to infinity, that is, :\lim_ \left( \sup ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Least Squares
The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems (sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns) by minimizing the sum of the squares of the residuals (a residual being the difference between an observed value and the fitted value provided by a model) made in the results of each individual equation. The most important application is in data fitting. When the problem has substantial uncertainties in the independent variable (the ''x'' variable), then simple regression and leastsquares methods have problems; in such cases, the methodology required for fitting errorsinvariables models may be considered instead of that for least squares. Least squares problems fall into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and nonlinear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns. The linear leastsquares problem occurs in statistical regressio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Collinear Points
In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear (sometimes spelled as colinear). In greater generality, the term has been used for aligned objects, that is, things being "in a line" or "in a row". Points on a line In any geometry, the set of points on a line are said to be collinear. In Euclidean geometry this relation is intuitively visualized by points lying in a row on a "straight line". However, in most geometries (including Euclidean) a line is typically a primitive (undefined) object type, so such visualizations will not necessarily be appropriate. A model for the geometry offers an interpretation of how the points, lines and other object types relate to one another and a notion such as collinearity must be interpreted within the context of that model. For instance, in spherical geometry, where lines are represented in the standard model by great circles of a spher ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jerk (physics)
In physics, jerk or jolt is the rate at which an object's acceleration changes with respect to time. It is a vector quantity (having both magnitude and direction). Jerk is most commonly denoted by the symbol and expressed in m/s3 (SI units) or standard gravities per second (''g''0/s). Expressions As a vector, jerk can be expressed as the first time derivative of acceleration, second time derivative of velocity, and third time derivative of position: \mathbf j(t) = \frac = \frac = \frac where * is acceleration * is velocity * is position * is time Thirdorder differential equations of the form J\left(\overset, \ddot, \dot, x\right) = 0 are sometimes called ''jerk equations''. When converted to an equivalent system of three ordinary firstorder nonlinear differential equations, jerk equations are the minimal setting for solutions showing chaotic behaviour. This condition generates mathematical interest in ''jerk systems''. Systems involving fourthorder derivatives or h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cloverleaf Interchange
A cloverleaf interchange is a twolevel interchange in which all turns are handled by slip roads. To go left (in righthand traffic; reverse directions in leftdriving regions), vehicles first continue as one road passes over or under the other, then exit right onto a oneway threefourths loop ramp (270°) and merge onto the intersecting road. The objective of a cloverleaf is to allow two highways to cross without the need for any traffic to be stopped by traffic lights. The limiting factor in the capacity of a cloverleaf interchange is traffic weaving. Overview Cloverleaf interchanges, viewed from overhead or on maps, resemble the leaves of a fourleaf clover or less often a 3leaf clover. In the United States, cloverleaf interchanges existed long before the Interstate system. They were originally created for busier interchanges that the original diamond interchange system could not handle. Their chief advantage was that they were freeflowing and did not require t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spline (mathematics)
In mathematics, a spline is a special function defined piecewise by polynomials. In interpolating problems, spline interpolation is often preferred to polynomial interpolation because it yields similar results, even when using low degree polynomials, while avoiding Runge's phenomenon for higher degrees. In the computer science subfields of computeraided design and computer graphics, the term ''spline'' more frequently refers to a piecewise polynomial ( parametric) curve. Splines are popular curves in these subfields because of the simplicity of their construction, their ease and accuracy of evaluation, and their capacity to approximate complex shapes through curve fitting and interactive curve design. The term spline comes from the flexible spline devices used by shipbuilders and draftsmen to draw smooth shapes. Introduction The term "spline" is used to refer to a wide class of functions that are used in applications requiring data interpolation and/or smoothing. The data ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 