Convergence Space
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Convergence Space
In mathematics, a convergence space, also called a generalized convergence, is a set together with a relation called a that satisfies certain properties relating elements of ''X'' with the family of filters on ''X''. Convergence spaces generalize the notions of convergence that are found in point-set topology, including metric convergence and uniform convergence. Every topological space gives rise to a canonical convergence but there are convergences, known as , that do not arise from any topological space. Examples of convergences that are in general non-topological include convergence in measure and almost everywhere convergence. Many topological properties have generalizations to convergence spaces. Besides its ability to describe notions of convergence that topologies are unable to, the category of convergence spaces has an important categorical property that the category of topological spaces lacks. The category of topological spaces is not an exponential category ( ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Power Set
In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of a set is the set of all subsets of , including the empty set and itself. In axiomatic set theory (as developed, for example, in the ZFC axioms), the existence of the power set of any set is postulated by the axiom of power set. The powerset of is variously denoted as , , , \mathbb(S), or . The notation , meaning the set of all functions from S to a given set of two elements (e.g., ), is used because the powerset of can be identified with, equivalent to, or bijective to the set of all the functions from to the given two elements set. Any subset of is called a ''family of sets'' over . Example If is the set , then all the subsets of are * (also denoted \varnothing or \empty, the empty set or the null set) * * * * * * * and hence the power set of is . Properties If is a finite set with the cardinality (i.e., the number of all elements in the set is ), then the number of all the subsets of is . This fact as we ...
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Hausdorff Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the many separation axioms that can be imposed on a topological space, the "Hausdorff condition" (T2) is the most frequently used and discussed. It implies the uniqueness of limits of sequences, nets, and filters. Hausdorff spaces are named after Felix Hausdorff, one of the founders of topology. Hausdorff's original definition of a topological space (in 1914) included the Hausdorff condition as an axiom. Definitions Points x and y in a topological space X can be '' separated by neighbourhoods'' if there exists a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of y such that U and V are disjoint (U\cap V=\varnothing). X is a Hausdorff space if any two distinct points in X are separated by neighbourhoods. This condition is the third separati ...
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Indiscrete Topology
In topology, a topological space with the trivial topology is one where the only open sets are the empty set and the entire space. Such spaces are commonly called indiscrete, anti-discrete, concrete or codiscrete. Intuitively, this has the consequence that all points of the space are "lumped together" and cannot be distinguished by topological means. Every indiscrete space is a pseudometric space in which the distance between any two points is zero. Details The trivial topology is the topology with the least possible number of open sets, namely the empty set and the entire space, since the definition of a topology requires these two sets to be open. Despite its simplicity, a space ''X'' with more than one element and the trivial topology lacks a key desirable property: it is not a T0 space. Other properties of an indiscrete space ''X''—many of which are quite unusual—include: * The only closed sets are the empty set and ''X''. * The only possible basis of ''X'' is ...
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Locally Compact
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is called locally compact if, roughly speaking, each small portion of the space looks like a small portion of a compact space. More precisely, it is a topological space in which every point has a compact neighborhood. In mathematical analysis locally compact spaces that are Hausdorff are of particular interest; they are abbreviated as LCH spaces. Formal definition Let ''X'' be a topological space. Most commonly ''X'' is called locally compact if every point ''x'' of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood, i.e., there exists an open set ''U'' and a compact set ''K'', such that x\in U\subseteq K. There are other common definitions: They are all equivalent if ''X'' is a Hausdorff space (or preregular). But they are not equivalent in general: :1. every point of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood. :2. every point of ''X'' has a closed compact neighbourhood. :2′. every point of ''X'' has a relatively compact neighbourhood ...
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Neighborhood Filter
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the neighbourhood system, complete system of neighbourhoods, or neighbourhood filter \mathcal(x) for a point x in a topological space is the collection of all neighbourhoods of x. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point or set An of a point (or subset) x in a topological space X is any open subset U of X that contains x. A is any subset N \subseteq X that contains open neighbourhood of x; explicitly, N is a neighbourhood of x in X if and only if there exists some open subset U with x \in U \subseteq N. Equivalently, a neighborhood of x is any set that contains x in its topological interior. Importantly, a "neighbourhood" does have to be an open set; those neighbourhoods that also happen to be open sets are known as "open neighbourhoods." Similarly, a neighbourhood that is also a closed (respectively, compact, connected, etc.) set is called a (respectively, , , etc.). There are many other types of neighbourhoods that are used ...
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Upper Set
In mathematics, an upper set (also called an upward closed set, an upset, or an isotone set in ''X'') of a partially ordered set (X, \leq) is a subset S \subseteq X with the following property: if ''s'' is in ''S'' and if ''x'' in ''X'' is larger than ''s'' (that is, if s \leq x), then ''x'' is in ''S''. In words, this means that any ''x'' element of ''X'' that is \,\geq\, to some element of ''S'' is necessarily also an element of ''S''. The term lower set (also called a downward closed set, down set, decreasing set, initial segment, or semi-ideal) is defined similarly as being a subset ''S'' of ''X'' with the property that any element ''x'' of ''X'' that is \,\leq\, to some element of ''S'' is necessarily also an element of ''S''. Definition Let (X, \leq) be a preordered set. An in X (also called an , an , or an set) is a subset U \subseteq X that is "closed under going up", in the sense that :for all u \in U and all x \in X, if u \leq x then x \in U. The dual notion is a ...
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Binary Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the ''domain'', with elements of another set, called the ''codomain''. A binary relation over sets and is a new set of ordered pairs consisting of elements in and in . It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element is ''related'' to an element , if and only if the pair belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the ''binary relation''. A binary relation is the most studied special case of an -ary relation over sets , which is a subset of the Cartesian product X_1 \times \cdots \times X_n. An example of a binary relation is the "divides" relation over the set of prime numbers \mathbb and the set of integers \mathbb, in which each prime is related to each integer that is a multiple of , but not to an integer that is not a multiple of . In this relation, for instance, the prime number 2 is related to numbe ...
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Ultrafilter (set Theory)
In the mathematical field of set theory, an ultrafilter is a ''maximal proper filter'': it is a filter U on a given non-empty set X which is a certain type of non-empty family of subsets of X, that is not equal to the power set \wp(X) of X (such filters are called ) and that is also "maximal" in that there does not exist any other proper filter on X that contains it as a proper subset. Said differently, a proper filter U is called an ultrafilter if there exists proper filter that contains it as a subset, that proper filter (necessarily) being U itself. More formally, an ultrafilter U on X is a proper filter that is also a maximal filter on X with respect to set inclusion, meaning that there does not exist any proper filter on X that contains U as a proper subset. Ultrafilters on sets are an important special instance of ultrafilters on partially ordered sets, where the partially ordered set consists of the power set \wp(X) and the partial order is subset inclusion \,\subse ...
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Prefilter
In mathematics, a filter on a set X is a family \mathcal of subsets such that: # X \in \mathcal and \emptyset \notin \mathcal # if A\in \mathcal and B \in \mathcal, then A\cap B\in \mathcal # If A,B\subset X,A\in \mathcal, and A\subset B, then B\in \mathcal A filter on a set may be thought of as representing a "collection of large subsets". Filters appear in order, model theory, set theory, but can also be found in topology, from which they originate. The dual notion of a filter is an ideal. Filters were introduced by Henri Cartan in 1937 and as described in the article dedicated to filters in topology, they were subsequently used by Nicolas Bourbaki in their book ''Topologie Générale'' as an alternative to the related notion of a net developed in 1922 by E. H. Moore and Herman L. Smith. Order filters are generalizations of filters from sets to arbitrary partially ordered sets. Specifically, a filter on a set is just a proper order filter in the special case where the pa ...
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Finite Intersection Property
In general topology, a branch of mathematics, a non-empty family ''A'' of subsets of a set X is said to have the finite intersection property (FIP) if the intersection over any finite subcollection of A is non-empty. It has the strong finite intersection property (SFIP) if the intersection over any finite subcollection of A is infinite. Sets with the finite intersection property are also called centered systems and filter subbases. The finite intersection property can be used to reformulate topological compactness in terms of closed sets; this is its most prominent application. Other applications include proving that certain perfect sets are uncountable, and the construction of ultrafilters. Definition Let X be a set and \mathcal a nonempty family of subsets of that is, \mathcal is a subset of the power set of Then \mathcal is said to have the finite intersection property if every nonempty finite subfamily has nonempty intersection; it is said to have the strong finit ...
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