Codimension
In mathematics, codimension is a basic geometric idea that applies to subspaces in vector spaces, to submanifolds in manifolds, and suitable subsets of algebraic varieties. For affine and projective algebraic varieties, the codimension equals the height of the defining ideal. For this reason, the height of an ideal is often called its codimension. The dual concept is relative dimension. Definition Codimension is a ''relative'' concept: it is only defined for one object ''inside'' another. There is no “codimension of a vector space (in isolation)”, only the codimension of a vector ''sub''space. If ''W'' is a linear subspace of a finitedimensional vector space ''V'', then the codimension of ''W'' in ''V'' is the difference between the dimensions: :\operatorname(W) = \dim(V)  \dim(W). It is the complement of the dimension of ''W,'' in that, with the dimension of ''W,'' it adds up to the dimension of the ambient space ''V:'' :\dim(W) + \operatorname(W) = \dim(V). Similarly, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Relative Dimension
In mathematics, specifically linear algebra and geometry, relative dimension is the dual notion to codimension. In linear algebra, given a quotient map V \to Q, the difference dim ''V'' − dim ''Q'' is the relative dimension; this equals the dimension of the kernel. In fiber bundles, the relative dimension of the map is the dimension of the fiber. More abstractly, the codimension of a map is the dimension of the cokernel, while the relative dimension of a map is the dimension of the kernel. These are dual in that the inclusion of a subspace V \to W of codimension ''k'' dualizes to yield a quotient map W^* \to V^* of relative dimension ''k'', and conversely. The additivity of codimension under intersection corresponds to the additivity of relative dimension in a fiber product In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a pullback (also called a fiber product, fibre product, fibered product or Cartesian square) is the limit of a diagram consisting of two morphisms and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Subspace
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear subspace, also known as a vector subspaceThe term ''linear subspace'' is sometimes used for referring to flats and affine subspaces. In the case of vector spaces over the reals, linear subspaces, flats, and affine subspaces are also called ''linear manifolds'' for emphasizing that there are also manifolds. is a vector space that is a subset of some larger vector space. A linear subspace is usually simply called a ''subspace'' when the context serves to distinguish it from other types of subspaces. Definition If ''V'' is a vector space over a field ''K'' and if ''W'' is a subset of ''V'', then ''W'' is a linear subspace of ''V'' if under the operations of ''V'', ''W'' is a vector space over ''K''. Equivalently, a nonempty subset ''W'' is a subspace of ''V'' if, whenever are elements of ''W'' and are elements of ''K'', it follows that is in ''W''. As a corollary, all vector spaces are equipped with at least two ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Subspace
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear subspace, also known as a vector subspaceThe term ''linear subspace'' is sometimes used for referring to flats and affine subspaces. In the case of vector spaces over the reals, linear subspaces, flats, and affine subspaces are also called ''linear manifolds'' for emphasizing that there are also manifolds. is a vector space that is a subset of some larger vector space. A linear subspace is usually simply called a ''subspace'' when the context serves to distinguish it from other types of subspaces. Definition If ''V'' is a vector space over a field ''K'' and if ''W'' is a subset of ''V'', then ''W'' is a linear subspace of ''V'' if under the operations of ''V'', ''W'' is a vector space over ''K''. Equivalently, a nonempty subset ''W'' is a subspace of ''V'' if, whenever are elements of ''W'' and are elements of ''K'', it follows that is in ''W''. As a corollary, all vector spaces are equipped with at least two ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Manifold
In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an ndimensional manifold, or ''nmanifold'' for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of ndimensional Euclidean space. Onedimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not lemniscates. Twodimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane. The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows complicated structures to be described in terms of wellunderstood topological properties of simpler spaces. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions. The concept has applications in computergraphics given the need to associate pictures with coordinates (e.g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transversality (mathematics)
In mathematics, transversality is a notion that describes how spaces can intersect; transversality can be seen as the "opposite" of tangency, and plays a role in general position. It formalizes the idea of a generic intersection in differential topology. It is defined by considering the linearizations of the intersecting spaces at the points of intersection. Definition Two submanifolds of a given finitedimensional smooth manifold are said to intersect transversally if at every point of intersection, their separate tangent spaces at that point together generate the tangent space of the ambient manifold at that point. Manifolds that do not intersect are vacuously transverse. If the manifolds are of complementary dimension (i.e., their dimensions add up to the dimension of the ambient space), the condition means that the tangent space to the ambient manifold is the direct sum of the two smaller tangent spaces. If an intersection is transverse, then the intersection will be a su ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Height (ring Theory)
In commutative algebra, the Krull dimension of a commutative ring ''R'', named after Wolfgang Krull, is the supremum of the lengths of all chains of prime ideals. The Krull dimension need not be finite even for a Noetherian ring. More generally the Krull dimension can be defined for modules over possibly noncommutative rings as the deviation of the poset of submodules. The Krull dimension was introduced to provide an algebraic definition of the dimension of an algebraic variety: the dimension of the affine variety defined by an ideal ''I'' in a polynomial ring ''R'' is the Krull dimension of ''R''/''I''. A field ''k'' has Krull dimension 0; more generally, ''k'' 'x''1, ..., ''x''''n''has Krull dimension ''n''. A principal ideal domain that is not a field has Krull dimension 1. A local ring has Krull dimension 0 if and only if every element of its maximal ideal is nilpotent. There are several other ways that have been used to define the dimension of a ring. Most of them coinc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Space (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the quotient of a vector space ''V'' by a subspace ''N'' is a vector space obtained by "collapsing" ''N'' to zero. The space obtained is called a quotient space and is denoted ''V''/''N'' (read "''V'' mod ''N''" or "''V'' by ''N''"). Definition Formally, the construction is as follows. Let ''V'' be a vector space over a field ''K'', and let ''N'' be a subspace of ''V''. We define an equivalence relation ~ on ''V'' by stating that ''x'' ~ ''y'' if . That is, ''x'' is related to ''y'' if one can be obtained from the other by adding an element of ''N''. From this definition, one can deduce that any element of ''N'' is related to the zero vector; more precisely, all the vectors in ''N'' get mapped into the equivalence class of the zero vector. The equivalence class – or, in this case, the coset – of ''x'' is often denoted : 'x''= ''x'' + ''N'' since it is given by : 'x''= . The quotient space ''V''/''N'' is then defined as ''V''/~, the set of all equivale ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Affine Variety
In algebraic geometry, an affine variety, or affine algebraic variety, over an algebraically closed field is the zerolocus in the affine space of some finite family of polynomials of variables with coefficients in that generate a prime ideal. If the condition of generating a prime ideal is removed, such a set is called an (affine) algebraic set. A Zariski open subvariety of an affine variety is called a quasiaffine variety. Some texts do not require a prime ideal, and call ''irreducible'' an algebraic variety defined by a prime ideal. This article refers to zeroloci of not necessarily prime ideals as affine algebraic sets. In some contexts, it is useful to distinguish the field in which the coefficients are considered, from the algebraically closed field (containing ) over which the zerolocus is considered (that is, the points of the affine variety are in ). In this case, the variety is said ''defined over'' , and the points of the variety that belong to are said '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intersection Theory
In mathematics, intersection theory is one of the main branches of algebraic geometry, where it gives information about the intersection of two subvarieties of a given variety. The theory for varieties is older, with roots in Bézout's theorem on curves and elimination theory. On the other hand, the topological theory more quickly reached a definitive form. There is yet an ongoing development of intersection theory. Currently the main focus is on: virtual fundamental cycles, quantum intersection rings, GromovWitten theory and the extension of intersection theory from schemes to stacks. Topological intersection form For a connected oriented manifold of dimension the intersection form is defined on the th cohomology group (what is usually called the 'middle dimension') by the evaluation of the cup product on the fundamental class in . Stated precisely, there is a bilinear form :\lambda_M \colon H^n(M,\partial M) \times H^n(M,\partial M)\to \mathbf given by :\lambda ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projective Algebraic Varieties
In algebraic geometry, a projective variety over an algebraically closed field ''k'' is a subset of some projective ''n''space \mathbb^n over ''k'' that is the zerolocus of some finite family of homogeneous polynomials of ''n'' + 1 variables with coefficients in ''k'', that generate a prime ideal, the defining ideal of the variety. Equivalently, an algebraic variety is projective if it can be embedded as a Zariski closed subvariety of \mathbb^n. A projective variety is a projective curve if its dimension is one; it is a projective surface if its dimension is two; it is a projective hypersurface if its dimension is one less than the dimension of the containing projective space; in this case it is the set of zeros of a single homogeneous polynomial. If ''X'' is a projective variety defined by a homogeneous prime ideal ''I'', then the quotient ring :k _0, \ldots, x_nI is called the homogeneous coordinate ring of ''X''. Basic invariants of ''X'' such as the degree and the d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

General Position
In algebraic geometry and computational geometry, general position is a notion of genericity for a set of points, or other geometric objects. It means the ''general case'' situation, as opposed to some more special or coincidental cases that are possible, which is referred to as special position. Its precise meaning differs in different settings. For example, generically, two lines in the plane intersect in a single point (they are not parallel or coincident). One also says "two generic lines intersect in a point", which is formalized by the notion of a generic point. Similarly, three generic points in the plane are not collinear; if three points are collinear (even stronger, if two coincide), this is a degenerate case. This notion is important in mathematics and its applications, because degenerate cases may require an exceptional treatment; for example, when stating general theorems or giving precise statements thereof, and when writing computer programs (see '' generic compl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sides Of An Equation
In mathematics, LHS is informal shorthand for the lefthand side of an equation. Similarly, RHS is the righthand side. The two sides have the same value, expressed differently, since equality is symmetric. definition and example of abbreviation More generally, these terms may apply to an or ; the righthand side is every ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 