Characteristic (algebra)
In mathematics, the characteristic of a ring (mathematics), ring , often denoted , is defined to be the smallest number of times one must use the ring's identity element, multiplicative identity (1) in a sum to get the additive identity (0). If this sum never reaches the additive identity the ring is said to have characteristic zero. That is, is the smallest positive number such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 if such a number exists, and otherwise. Motivation The special definition of the characteristic zero is motivated by the equivalent definitions characterized in the next section, where the characteristic zero is not required to be considered separately. The characteristic may also be taken to be the exponent (group theory), exponent of the ring's additive group, that is, the smallest positive integer such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 for every element of the ring (again, if exists; otherwise zero). Some authors do not include the multiplicative identity element in their r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Least Common Multiple
In arithmetic and number theory, the least common multiple, lowest common multiple, or smallest common multiple of two integers ''a'' and ''b'', usually denoted by lcm(''a'', ''b''), is the smallest positive integer that is divisible by both ''a'' and ''b''. Since division of integers by zero is undefined, this definition has meaning only if ''a'' and ''b'' are both different from zero. However, some authors define lcm(''a'',0) as 0 for all ''a'', since 0 is the only common multiple of ''a'' and 0. The lcm is the "lowest common denominator" (lcd) that can be used before fractions can be added, subtracted or compared. The least common multiple of more than two integers ''a'', ''b'', ''c'', . . . , usually denoted by lcm(''a'', ''b'', ''c'', . . .), is also well defined: It is the smallest positive integer that is divisible by each of ''a'', ''b'', ''c'', . . . Overview A multiple of a number is the product of that number and an integer. For example, 10 is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injective
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frobenius Homomorphism
In commutative algebra and field theory, the Frobenius endomorphism (after Ferdinand Georg Frobenius) is a special endomorphism of commutative rings with prime characteristic , an important class which includes finite fields. The endomorphism maps every element to its th power. In certain contexts it is an automorphism, but this is not true in general. Definition Let be a commutative ring with prime characteristic (an integral domain of positive characteristic always has prime characteristic, for example). The Frobenius endomorphism ''F'' is defined by :F(r) = r^p for all ''r'' in ''R''. It respects the multiplication of ''R'': :F(rs) = (rs)^p = r^ps^p = F(r)F(s), and is 1 as well. Moreover, it also respects the addition of . The expression can be expanded using the binomial theorem. Because is prime, it divides but not any for ; it therefore will divide the numerator, but not the denominator, of the explicit formula of the binomial coefficients :\frac, if . Ther ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Freshman's Dream
The freshman's dream is a name sometimes given to the erroneous equation (x+y)^n=x^n+y^n, where n is a real number (usually a positive integer greater than 1) and x,y are nonzero real numbers. Beginning students commonly make this error in computing the power of a sum of real numbers, falsely assuming powers distribute over sums. When ''n'' = 2, it is easy to see why this is incorrect: (''x'' + ''y'')2 can be correctly computed as ''x''2 + 2''xy'' + ''y''2 using distributivity (commonly known by students as the FOIL method). For larger positive integer values of ''n'', the correct result is given by the binomial theorem. The name "freshman's dream" also sometimes refers to the theorem that says that for a prime number ''p'', if ''x'' and ''y'' are members of a commutative ring of characteristic ''p'', then (''x'' + ''y'')''p'' = ''x''''p'' + ''y''''p''. In this more exotic type of arithmetic, the "mistake" actually g ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Ring
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient group in group theory and to the quotient space in linear algebra. It is a specific example of a quotient, as viewed from the general setting of universal algebra. Starting with a ring and a twosided ideal in , a new ring, the quotient ring , is constructed, whose elements are the cosets of in subject to special and operations. (Only the fraction slash "/" is used in quotient ring notation, not a horizontal fraction bar.) Quotient rings are distinct from the socalled "quotient field", or field of fractions, of an integral domain as well as from the more general "rings of quotients" obtained by localization. Formal quotient ring construction Given a ring and a twosided ideal in , we may define an equivalence relation on as follows: : if and only if is in . Using the ideal properties, it is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Irreducible Polynomial
In mathematics, an irreducible polynomial is, roughly speaking, a polynomial that cannot be factored into the product of two nonconstant polynomials. The property of irreducibility depends on the nature of the coefficients that are accepted for the possible factors, that is, the field to which the coefficients of the polynomial and its possible factors are supposed to belong. For example, the polynomial is a polynomial with integer coefficients, but, as every integer is also a real number, it is also a polynomial with real coefficients. It is irreducible if it is considered as a polynomial with integer coefficients, but it factors as \left(x  \sqrt\right)\left(x + \sqrt\right) if it is considered as a polynomial with real coefficients. One says that the polynomial is irreducible over the integers but not over the reals. Polynomial irreducibility can be considered for polynomials with coefficients in an integral domain, and there are two common definitions. Most often, a p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Modular Arithmetic
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" when reaching a certain value, called the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'', published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12hour clock, in which the day is divided into two 12hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Simple addition would result in , but clocks "wrap around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over at zero when it reaches 12, this is arithmetic ''modulo'' 12. In terms of the definition below, 15 is ''congruent'' to 3 modulo 12, so "15:00" on a 24hour clock is displayed "3:00" on a 12hour clock. Congruence Given an integer , called a modulus, two integers and are said to be congruent modulo , if is a divisor of their difference (that is, if there is an integer such that ). Congruence modulo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division Ring
In algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a nontrivial ring in which division by nonzero elements is defined. Specifically, it is a nontrivial ring in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse, that is, an element usually denoted , such that . So, (right) ''division'' may be defined as , but this notation is avoided, as one may have . A commutative division ring is a field. Wedderburn's little theorem asserts that all finite division rings are commutative and therefore finite fields. Historically, division rings were sometimes referred to as fields, while fields were called "commutative fields". In some languages, such as French, the word equivalent to "field" ("corps") is used for both commutative and noncommutative cases, and the distinction between the two cases is made by adding qualificatives such as "corps commutatif" (commutative field) or "corps gauche" (skew field). All division rings are simple. That is, they have no twosided ideal besi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term entir ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other results, thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 