Category Of Groups
In mathematics, the category Grp (or Gp) has the class of all groups for objects and group homomorphisms for morphisms. As such, it is a concrete category. The study of this category is known as group theory. Relation to other categories There are two forgetful functors from Grp, M: Grp → Mon from groups to monoids and U: Grp → Set from groups to sets. M has two adjoints: one right, I: Mon→Grp, and one left, K: Mon→Grp. I: Mon→Grp is the functor sending every monoid to the submonoid of invertible elements and K: Mon→Grp the functor sending every monoid to the Grothendieck group of that monoid. The forgetful functor U: Grp → Set has a left adjoint given by the composite KF: Set→Mon→Grp, where F is the free functor; this functor assigns to every set ''S'' the free group on ''S.'' Categorical properties The monomorphisms in Grp are precisely the injective homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are precisely the surjective homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Injective
In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or onetoone function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more detail ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kernel (algebra)
In algebra, the kernel of a homomorphism (function that preserves the structure) is generally the inverse image of 0 (except for groups whose operation is denoted multiplicatively, where the kernel is the inverse image of 1). An important special case is the kernel of a linear map. The kernel of a matrix, also called the ''null space'', is the kernel of the linear map defined by the matrix. The kernel of a homomorphism is reduced to 0 (or 1) if and only if the homomorphism is injective, that is if the inverse image of every element consists of a single element. This means that the kernel can be viewed as a measure of the degree to which the homomorphism fails to be injective.See and . For some types of structure, such as abelian groups and vector spaces, the possible kernels are exactly the substructures of the same type. This is not always the case, and, sometimes, the possible kernels have received a special name, such as normal subgroup for groups and twosided idea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kernel (category Theory)
In category theory and its applications to other branches of mathematics, kernels are a generalization of the kernels of group homomorphisms, the kernels of module homomorphisms and certain other kernels from algebra. Intuitively, the kernel of the morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' is the "most general" morphism ''k'' : ''K'' → ''X'' that yields zero when composed with (followed by) ''f''. Note that kernel pairs and difference kernels (also known as binary equalisers) sometimes go by the name "kernel"; while related, these aren't quite the same thing and are not discussed in this article. Definition Let C be a category. In order to define a kernel in the general categorytheoretical sense, C needs to have zero morphisms. In that case, if ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' is an arbitrary morphism in C, then a kernel of ''f'' is an equaliser of ''f'' and the zero morphism from ''X'' to ''Y''. In symbols: :ker(''f'') = eq(''f'', 0''XY'') To be more explicit, the following universal pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Trivial Group
In mathematics, a trivial group or zero group is a group consisting of a single element. All such groups are isomorphic, so one often speaks of the trivial group. The single element of the trivial group is the identity element and so it is usually denoted as such: 0, 1, or e depending on the context. If the group operation is denoted \, \cdot \, then it is defined by e \cdot e = e. The similarly defined is also a group since its only element is its own inverse, and is hence the same as the trivial group. The trivial group is distinct from the empty set, which has no elements, hence lacks an identity element, and so cannot be a group. Definitions Given any group G, the group consisting of only the identity element is a subgroup of G, and, being the trivial group, is called the of G. The term, when referred to "G has no nontrivial proper subgroups" refers to the only subgroups of G being the trivial group \ and the group G itself. Properties The trivial group is cycli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every oneelement set ( singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every onepoint space is a terminal object in this category. * In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Product
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the free product is an operation that takes two groups ''G'' and ''H'' and constructs a new The result contains both ''G'' and ''H'' as subgroups, is generated by the elements of these subgroups, and is the “ universal” group having these properties, in the sense that any two homomorphisms from ''G'' and ''H'' into a group ''K'' factor uniquely through a homomorphism from to ''K''. Unless one of the groups ''G'' and ''H'' is trivial, the free product is always infinite. The construction of a free product is similar in spirit to the construction of a free group (the universal group with a given set of generators). The free product is the coproduct in the category of groups. That is, the free product plays the same role in group theory that disjoint union plays in set theory, or that the direct sum plays in module theory. Even if the groups are commutative, their free product is not, unless one of the two groups is the trivial gro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coproduct
In category theory, the coproduct, or categorical sum, is a construction which includes as examples the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups, and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces. The coproduct of a family of objects is essentially the "least specific" object to which each object in the family admits a morphism. It is the categorytheoretic dual notion to the categorical product, which means the definition is the same as the product but with all arrows reversed. Despite this seemingly innocuous change in the name and notation, coproducts can be and typically are dramatically different from products. Definition Let C be a category and let X_1 and X_2 be objects of C. An object is called the coproduct of X_1 and X_2, written X_1 \sqcup X_2, or X_1 \oplus X_2, or sometimes simply X_1 + X_2, if there exist morphisms i_1 : X_1 \to X_1 \sqcup X_2 and i_2 : X_2 \to X_1 \sqcup X_2 satisfying the following universal property: fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Product Of Groups
In mathematics, specifically in group theory, the direct product is an operation that takes two groups and and constructs a new group, usually denoted . This operation is the grouptheoretic analogue of the Cartesian product of sets and is one of several important notions of direct product in mathematics. In the context of abelian groups, the direct product is sometimes referred to as the direct sum, and is denoted G \oplus H. Direct sums play an important role in the classification of abelian groups: according to the fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups, every finite abelian group can be expressed as the direct sum of cyclic groups. Definition Given groups (with operation ) and (with operation ), the direct product is defined as follows: The resulting algebraic object satisfies the axioms for a group. Specifically: ;Associativity: The binary operation on is associative. ;Identity: The direct product has an identity element, namely , where is the identity ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Product (category Theory)
In category theory, the product of two (or more) objects in a category is a notion designed to capture the essence behind constructions in other areas of mathematics such as the Cartesian product of sets, the direct product of groups or rings, and the product of topological spaces. Essentially, the product of a family of objects is the "most general" object which admits a morphism to each of the given objects. Definition Product of two objects Fix a category C. Let X_1 and X_2 be objects of C. A product of X_1 and X_2 is an object X, typically denoted X_1 \times X_2, equipped with a pair of morphisms \pi_1 : X \to X_1, \pi_2 : X \to X_2 satisfying the following universal property: * For every object Y and every pair of morphisms f_1 : Y \to X_1, f_2 : Y \to X_2, there exists a unique morphism f : Y \to X_1 \times X_2 such that the following diagram commutes: *: Whether a product exists may depend on C or on X_1 and X_2. If it does exist, it is unique up to canonical iso ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Category
In mathematics, a complete category is a category in which all small limits exist. That is, a category ''C'' is complete if every diagram ''F'' : ''J'' → ''C'' (where ''J'' is small) has a limit in ''C''. Dually, a cocomplete category is one in which all small colimits exist. A bicomplete category is a category which is both complete and cocomplete. The existence of ''all'' limits (even when ''J'' is a proper class) is too strong to be practically relevant. Any category with this property is necessarily a thin category: for any two objects there can be at most one morphism from one object to the other. A weaker form of completeness is that of finite completeness. A category is finitely complete if all finite limits exists (i.e. limits of diagrams indexed by a finite category ''J''). Dually, a category is finitely cocomplete if all finite colimits exist. Theorems It follows from the existence theorem for limits that a category is complete if and only if it has equalizers (of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bijective
In mathematics, a bijection, also known as a bijective function, onetoone correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms, a bijective function is a onetoone (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set ''X'' to a set ''Y''. The term ''onetoone correspondence'' must not be confused with ''onetoone function'' (an injective function; see figures). A bijection from the set ''X'' to the set ''Y'' has an inverse function from ''Y'' to ''X''. If ''X'' and ''Y'' are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For infinite sets, the picture is more complicated, leading to the concept of cardinal number—a way to distinguish the various sizes of infinite sets. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 