Box Topology
In topology, the cartesian product of topological spaces can be given several different topologies. One of the more obvious choices is the box topology, where a base is given by the Cartesian products of open sets in the component spaces. Another possibility is the product topology, where a base is given by the Cartesian products of open sets in the component spaces, only finitely many of which can be not equal to the entire component space. While the box topology has a somewhat more intuitive definition than the product topology, it satisfies fewer desirable properties. In particular, if all the component spaces are compact, the box topology on their Cartesian product will not necessarily be compact, although the product topology on their Cartesian product will always be compact. In general, the box topology is finer than the product topology, although the two agree in the case of finite direct products (or when all but finitely many of the factors are trivial). Definition Given ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object that are preserved under Continuous function, continuous Deformation theory, deformations, such as Stretch factor, stretching, Twist (mathematics), twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set (mathematics), set endowed with a structure, called a ''Topology (structure), topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity (mathematics), continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopy, homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paracompact
In mathematics, a paracompact space is a topological space in which every open cover has an open refinement that is locally finite. These spaces were introduced by . Every compact space is paracompact. Every paracompact Hausdorff space is normal, and a Hausdorff space is paracompact if and only if it admits partitions of unity subordinate to any open cover. Sometimes paracompact spaces are defined so as to always be Hausdorff. Every closed subspace of a paracompact space is paracompact. While compact subsets of Hausdorff spaces are always closed, this is not true for paracompact subsets. A space such that every subspace of it is a paracompact space is called hereditarily paracompact. This is equivalent to requiring that every open subspace be paracompact. Tychonoff's theorem (which states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact) does not generalize to paracompact spaces in that the product of paracompact spaces need not be paracompact. Howeve ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Counterexamples In Topology
''Counterexamples in Topology'' (1970, 2nd ed. 1978) is a book on mathematics by topologists Lynn Steen and J. Arthur Seebach, Jr. In the process of working on problems like the metrization problem, topologists (including Steen and Seebach) have defined a wide variety of topological properties. It is often useful in the study and understanding of abstracts such as topological spaces to determine that one property does not follow from another. One of the easiest ways of doing this is to find a counterexample which exhibits one property but not the other. In ''Counterexamples in Topology'', Steen and Seebach, together with five students in an undergraduate research project at St. Olaf College, Minnesota in the summer of 1967, canvassed the field of topology for such counterexamples and compiled them in an attempt to simplify the literature. For instance, an example of a firstcountable space which is not secondcountable is counterexample #3, the discrete topology on an uncoun ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lynn Arthur Steen
Lynn Arthur Steen (January 1, 1941 – June 21, 2015) was an American mathematician who was a Professor of Mathematics at St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota in the U.S. He wrote numerous books and articles on the teaching of mathematics. He was a past president of the Mathematics Association of America (MAA) and served as chairman of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. Biography Lynn Steen was born in Chicago, Illinois but was raised in Staten Island, New York. His mother was a singer at the N.Y. City Center Opera and his father conducted the Wagner College Choir. In 1961, Steen graduated from Luther College with a degree in Mathematics and a minor in Physics. In 1965 Steen graduated from MIT with a Ph.D in Mathematics. He then joined the faculty of St. Olaf College. At the beginning of Steen's career he mainly focused on teaching and helping develop research experiences for undergraduates. His teaching led Steen to begin to investigate the links between mat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Topologies
The following is a list of named topologies or topological spaces, many of which are counterexamples in topology and related branches of mathematics. This is not a list of properties that a topology or topological space might possess; for that, see List of general topology topics and Topological property. Widely known topologies * The Baire space − \N^ with the product topology, where \N denotes the natural numbers endowed with the discrete topology. It is the space of all sequences of natural numbers. * Cantor set − A subset of the closed interval , 1/math> with remarkable properties. ** Cantor dust * Discrete topology − All subsets are open. * Euclidean topology − The natural topology on Euclidean space \Reals^n induced by the Euclidean metric, which is itself induced by the Euclidean norm. ** Real line − \Reals ** Spacefilling curve ** Unit interval − , 1/math> * Extended real number line * Hilbert cube − , 1/1\times , 1/2\times , 1/3\times \cdots with t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cylinder Set
In mathematics, the cylinder sets form a basis of the product topology on a product of sets; they are also a generating family of the cylinder σalgebra. General definition Given a collection S of sets, consider the Cartesian product X = \prod_ Y of all sets in the collection. The canonical projection corresponding to some Y\in S is the function p_ : X \to Y that maps every element of the product to its Y component. A cylinder set is a preimage of a canonical projection or finite intersection of such preimages. Explicitly, it is a set of the form, \bigcap_^n p_^ \left(A_i\right) = \left\ for any choice of n, finite sequence of sets Y_1,...Y_n\in S and subsets A_ \subseteq Y_i for 1 \leq i \leq n. Here x_Y\in Y denotes the Y component of x\in X. Then, when all sets in S are topological spaces, the product topology is generated by cylinder sets corresponding to the components' open sets. That is cylinders of the form \bigcap_^n p_^ \left(U_i\right) where for each i, U_i is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Connected Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a connected space is a topological space that cannot be represented as the union of two or more disjoint nonempty open subsets. Connectedness is one of the principal topological properties that are used to distinguish topological spaces. A subset of a topological space X is a if it is a connected space when viewed as a subspace of X. Some related but stronger conditions are path connected, simply connected, and nconnected. Another related notion is ''locally connected'', which neither implies nor follows from connectedness. Formal definition A topological space X is said to be if it is the union of two disjoint nonempty open sets. Otherwise, X is said to be connected. A subset of a topological space is said to be connected if it is connected under its subspace topology. Some authors exclude the empty set (with its unique topology) as a connected space, but this article does not follow that practice. For a topologi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Counterexample
A counterexample is any exception to a generalization. In logic a counterexample disproves the generalization, and does so rigorously in the fields of mathematics and philosophy. For example, the fact that "John Smith is not a lazy student" is a counterexample to the generalization “students are lazy”, and both a counterexample to, and disproof of, the universal quantification “all students are lazy.” In mathematics, the term "counterexample" is also used (by a slight abuse) to refer to examples which illustrate the necessity of the full hypothesis of a theorem. This is most often done by considering a case where a part of the hypothesis is not satisfied and the conclusion of the theorem does not hold. In mathematics In mathematics, counterexamples are often used to prove the boundaries of possible theorems. By using counterexamples to show that certain conjectures are false, mathematical researchers can then avoid going down blind alleys and learn to modify conjectures t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function (topology)
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pointwise Convergence
In mathematics, pointwise convergence is one of Modes of convergence (annotated index), various senses in which a sequence of functions can Limit (mathematics), converge to a particular function. It is weaker than uniform convergence, to which it is often compared. Definition Suppose that X is a set and Y is a topological space, such as the Real number, real or complex numbers or a metric space, for example. A Net (mathematics), net or sequence of Function (mathematics), functions \left(f_n\right) all having the same domain X and codomain Y is said to converge pointwise to a given function f : X \to Y often written as \lim_ f_n = f\ \mbox if (and only if) \lim_ f_n(x) = f(x) \text x \text f. The function f is said to be the pointwise limit function of the \left(f_n\right). Sometimes, authors use the term bounded pointwise convergence when there is a constant C such that \forall n,x,\;, f_n(x), Properties This concept is often contra ...[...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line (geometry), line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as speciallymarked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set (mathematics), set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometry, geometric space (mathematics), space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sequence
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''infi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 