Bilinear Form
In mathematics, a bilinear form is a bilinear map on a vector space (the elements of which are called '' vectors'') over a field ''K'' (the elements of which are called ''scalars''). In other words, a bilinear form is a function that is linear in each argument separately: * and * and The dot product on \R^n is an example of a bilinear form. The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When is the field of complex numbers , one is often more interested in sesquilinear forms, which are similar to bilinear forms but are conjugate linear in one argument. Coordinate representation Let be an dimensional vector space with basis . The matrix ''A'', defined by is called the ''matrix of the bilinear form'' on the basis . If the matrix represents a vector with respect to this basis, and analogously, represents another vector , then: B(\mathbf, \mathbf) = \mathbf^\textsf A\mathbf = \ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Invertible Matrix
In linear algebra, an by square matrix is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate), if there exists an by square matrix such that :\mathbf = \mathbf = \mathbf_n \ where denotes the by identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication. If this is the case, then the matrix is uniquely determined by , and is called the (multiplicative) ''inverse'' of , denoted by . Matrix inversion is the process of finding the matrix that satisfies the prior equation for a given invertible matrix . A square matrix that is ''not'' invertible is called singular or degenerate. A square matrix is singular if and only if its determinant is zero. Singular matrices are rare in the sense that if a square matrix's entries are randomly selected from any finite region on the number line or complex plane, the probability that the matrix is singular is 0, that is, it will "almost never" be singular. Nonsquare matrices (by matrices for which ) do not hav ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Bilinear Form
In mathematics, a symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a bilinear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map. In other words, it is a bilinear function B that maps every pair (u,v) of elements of the vector space V to the underlying field such that B(u,v)=B(v,u) for every u and v in V. They are also referred to more briefly as just symmetric forms when "bilinear" is understood. Symmetric bilinear forms on finitedimensional vector spaces precisely correspond to symmetric matrices given a basis for ''V''. Among bilinear forms, the symmetric ones are important because they are the ones for which the vector space admits a particularly simple kind of basis known as an orthogonal basis (at least when the characteristic of the field is not 2). Given a symmetric bilinear form ''B'', the function is the associated quadratic form on the vector space. Moreover, if the characteristic of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit (ring Theory)
In algebra, a unit of a ring is an invertible element for the multiplication of the ring. That is, an element of a ring is a unit if there exists in such that vu = uv = 1, where is the multiplicative identity; the element is unique for this property and is called the multiplicative inverse of . The set of units of forms a group under multiplication, called the group of units or unit group of . Other notations for the unit group are , , and (from the German term ). Less commonly, the term ''unit'' is sometimes used to refer to the element of the ring, in expressions like ''ring with a unit'' or ''unit ring'', and also unit matrix. Because of this ambiguity, is more commonly called the "unity" or the "identity" of the ring, and the phrases "ring with unity" or a "ring with identity" may be used to emphasize that one is considering a ring instead of a rng. Examples The multiplicative identity and its additive inverse are always units. More generally, any root of unit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nonsingular Matrix
In linear algebra, an by square matrix is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate), if there exists an by square matrix such that :\mathbf = \mathbf = \mathbf_n \ where denotes the by identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication. If this is the case, then the matrix is uniquely determined by , and is called the (multiplicative) ''inverse'' of , denoted by . Matrix inversion is the process of finding the matrix that satisfies the prior equation for a given invertible matrix . A square matrix that is ''not'' invertible is called singular or degenerate. A square matrix is singular if and only if its determinant is zero. Singular matrices are rare in the sense that if a square matrix's entries are randomly selected from any finite region on the number line or complex plane, the probability that the matrix is singular is 0, that is, it will "almost never" be singular. Nonsquare matrices (by matrices for which ) do not hav ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Determinant
In mathematics, the determinant is a scalar value that is a function of the entries of a square matrix. It characterizes some properties of the matrix and the linear map represented by the matrix. In particular, the determinant is nonzero if and only if the matrix is invertible and the linear map represented by the matrix is an isomorphism. The determinant of a product of matrices is the product of their determinants (the preceding property is a corollary of this one). The determinant of a matrix is denoted , , or . The determinant of a matrix is :\begin a & b\\c & d \end=adbc, and the determinant of a matrix is : \begin a & b & c \\ d & e & f \\ g & h & i \end= aei + bfg + cdh  ceg  bdi  afh. The determinant of a matrix can be defined in several equivalent ways. Leibniz formula expresses the determinant as a sum of signed products of matrix entries such that each summand is the product of different entries, and the number of these summands is n!, the factorial of (t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finitedimensional
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space ''V'' is the cardinality (i.e., the number of vectors) of a basis of ''V'' over its base field. p. 44, §2.36 It is sometimes called Hamel dimension (after Georg Hamel) or algebraic dimension to distinguish it from other types of dimension. For every vector space there exists a basis, and all bases of a vector space have equal cardinality; as a result, the dimension of a vector space is uniquely defined. We say V is if the dimension of V is finite, and if its dimension is infinite. The dimension of the vector space V over the field F can be written as \dim_F(V) or as : F read "dimension of V over F". When F can be inferred from context, \dim(V) is typically written. Examples The vector space \R^3 has \left\ as a standard basis, and therefore \dim_(\R^3) = 3. More generally, \dim_(\R^n) = n, and even more generally, \dim_(F^n) = n for any field F. The complex numbers \Complex are both a real and complex vector space; we have ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank–nullity Theorem
The rank–nullity theorem is a theorem in linear algebra, which asserts that the dimension of the domain of a linear map is the sum of its rank (the dimension of its image) and its ''nullity'' (the dimension of its kernel). p. 70, §2.1, Theorem 2.3 Stating the theorem Let T : V \to W be a linear transformation between two vector spaces where T's domain V is finite dimensional. Then \operatorname(T) ~+~ \operatorname(T) ~=~ \dim V, where \operatorname(T) ~:=~ \dim(\operatorname(T)) \qquad \text \qquad \operatorname(T) ~:=~ \dim(\operatorname (T)). In other words, \dim (\operatorname T) + \dim (\ker T) = \dim (\operatorname T). This theorem can be refined via the splitting lemma to be a statement about an isomorphism of spaces, not just dimensions. Explicitly, since induces an isomorphism from V / \operatorname (T) to \operatorname (T), the existence of a basis for that extends any given basis of \operatorname(T) implies, via the splitting lemma, that \operatorname(T) \oplus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. p. 48, § 1.16 This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of . This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the " nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by . There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics. The rank is commonly denoted by or ; sometimes the parentheses are not written, as in .Alternative notation includes \rho (\Phi) from and . Main definitions In this section, we give some definitions of the rank of a matrix. Many definitions are possible; see Alternative definitions for several of these. The column rank of is the dimension of the column space of , while the row rank of is the dimension of the row space of . A fundamental result in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kernel (algebra)
In algebra, the kernel of a homomorphism (function that preserves the structure) is generally the inverse image of 0 (except for groups whose operation is denoted multiplicatively, where the kernel is the inverse image of 1). An important special case is the kernel of a linear map. The kernel of a matrix, also called the ''null space'', is the kernel of the linear map defined by the matrix. The kernel of a homomorphism is reduced to 0 (or 1) if and only if the homomorphism is injective, that is if the inverse image of every element consists of a single element. This means that the kernel can be viewed as a measure of the degree to which the homomorphism fails to be injective.See and . For some types of structure, such as abelian groups and vector spaces, the possible kernels are exactly the substructures of the same type. This is not always the case, and, sometimes, the possible kernels have received a special name, such as normal subgroup for groups and twosided ideals for r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transpose Of A Linear Map
In linear algebra, the transpose of a linear map between two vector spaces, defined over the same field, is an induced map between the dual spaces of the two vector spaces. The transpose or algebraic adjoint of a linear map is often used to study the original linear map. This concept is generalised by adjoint functors. Definition Let X^ denote the algebraic dual space of a vector space X. Let X and Y be vector spaces over the same field \mathcal. If u : X \to Y is a linear map, then its algebraic adjoint or dual, is the map ^ u : Y^ \to X^ defined by f \mapsto f \circ u. The resulting functional ^ u(f) := f \circ u is called the pullback of f by u. The continuous dual space of a topological vector space (TVS) X is denoted by X^. If X and Y are TVSs then a linear map u : X \to Y is weakly continuous if and only if ^ u\left(Y^\right) \subseteq X^, in which case we let ^t u : Y^ \to X^ denote the restriction of ^ u to Y^. The map ^t u is called the transpose or algebraic ad ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Degenerate Form
In mathematics, specifically linear algebra, a degenerate bilinear form on a vector space ''V'' is a bilinear form such that the map from ''V'' to ''V''∗ (the dual space of ''V'' ) given by is not an isomorphism. An equivalent definition when ''V'' is finitedimensional is that it has a nontrivial kernel: there exist some nonzero ''x'' in ''V'' such that :f(x,y)=0\, for all \,y \in V. Nondegenerate forms A nondegenerate or nonsingular form is a bilinear form that is not degenerate, meaning that v \mapsto (x \mapsto f(x,v)) is an isomorphism, or equivalently in finite dimensions, if and only if :f(x,y)=0 for all y \in V implies that x = 0. The most important examples of nondegenerate forms are inner products and symplectic forms. Symmetric nondegenerate forms are important generalizations of inner products, in that often all that is required is that the map V \to V^* be an isomorphism, not positivity. For example, a manifold with an inner product structure on ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 