Average Costing
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Average Costing
Under the average cost method, it is assumed that the cost of inventory is based on the average cost of the goods available for sale during the period. The average cost is computed by dividing the total cost of goods available for sale by the total units available for sale. This gives a weighted-average unit cost that is applied to the units in the ending inventory. There are two commonly used average cost methods: Simple weighted-average cost method and perpetual weighted-average cost method. Weighted average cost Weighted average cost is a method of calculating ending inventory cost. It can also be referred to as "WAVCO". It takes cost of goods available for sale and divides it by the number of units available for sale (number of goods from beginning inventory + purchases/production). This gives a weighted average cost per unit. A physical count is then performed on the ending inventory to determine the number of goods left. Finally, this quantity is multiplied by weighte ...
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Weighted-average Cost
Under the average cost method, it is assumed that the cost of inventory is based on the average cost of the goods available for sale during the period. The average cost is computed by dividing the total cost of goods available for sale by the total units available for sale. This gives a weighted-average unit cost that is applied to the units in the ending inventory. There are two commonly used average cost methods: Simple weighted-average cost method and perpetual weighted-average cost method. Weighted average cost Weighted average cost is a method of calculating ending inventory cost. It can also be referred to as "WAVCO". It takes cost of goods available for sale and divides it by the number of units available for sale (number of goods from beginning inventory + purchases/production). This gives a weighted average cost per unit. A physical count is then performed on the ending inventory to determine the number of goods left. Finally, this quantity is multiplied by weig ...
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Perpetual Weighted-average Cost
Perpetual, meaning "eternal", may refer to: Christianity * Perpetual curacy, a type of Christian priesthood in Anglicanism * Perpetual virginity of Mary, one of the four Marian dogmas in Catholicism Finance *Perpetual bond, a bond that pays coupons forever *Perpetual plc, a British investment management company which became Invesco Perpetual *Perpetual Limited, an Australian diversified financials company *Perpetuity, a perpetual asset Other *Perpetual Entertainment, an American software development company *Perpetual Maritime Truce, the treaty defining peaceful relations in the Trucial States, today the United Arab Emirates. *Perpetual motion (other) *Perpetual Union The Perpetual Union is a feature of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, which established the United States of America as a political entity. Under modern American constitutional law this means that U.S. states are not permitted to ..., a concept in American constitutional law an ...
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Cost Of Goods Available For Sale
Cost of goods available for sale is the maximum amount of goods, or inventory, that a company can possibly sell during an accounting period. It has the formula:{{Cite book , url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/81601239 , title=Intermediate accounting , date=2007 , publisher=J. Wiley & Sons Canada , others=Kieso, Donald E. , isbn=978-0-470-83979-9 , edition=8th Canadian , location=Mississauga, Ont. , oclc=81601239 Beginning Inventory (at the start of accounting period) + purchases (within the accounting period) + Production (within the accounting period) = cost of goods available for sale Notice that purchases and production might not be the same throughout the year, since purchase cost and production cost might vary. But at the end, the total cost of purchases and production are added to beginning inventory cost to give cost of goods available for sale. Alternatively the costs of goods available for sales can be computed from the costs of sales: Costs of goods available for sale ∠...
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Beginning Inventory
An inventory valuation allows a company to provide a monetary value for items that make up their inventory. Inventories are usually the largest current asset of a business, and proper measurement of them is necessary to assure accurate financial statements. If inventory is not properly measured, expenses and revenues cannot be properly matched and a company could make poor business decisions. Inventory accounting system The two most widely used inventory accounting systems are the periodic and the perpetual. * ''Perpetual:'' The perpetual inventory system requires accounting records to show the amount of inventory on hand at all times. It maintains a separate account in the subsidiary ledger for each good in stock, and the account is updated each time a quantity is added or taken out. * ''Periodic:'' In the periodic inventory system, sales are recorded as they occur but the inventory is not updated. A physical inventory must be taken at the end of the year to determine the c ...
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Purchase
Purchasing is the process a business or organization uses to acquire goods or services to accomplish its goals. Although there are several organizations that attempt to set standards in the purchasing process, processes can vary greatly between organizations. Purchasing is part of the wider procurement process, which typically also includes expediting, supplier quality, transportation, and logistics. Details Purchasing managers/directors, and procurement managers/directors guide the organization’s acquisition procedures and standards. Most organizations use a three-way check as the foundation of their purchasing programs. This involves three departments in the organization completing separate parts of the acquisition process. The three departments do not all report to the same senior manager, to prevent unethical practices and lend credibility to the process. These departments can be purchasing, receiving and accounts payable; or engineering, purchasing and accounts payab ...
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Sales
Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in response to an acquisition, appropriation, requisition, or a direct interaction with the ''buyer'' at the point of sale. There is a passing of title (property or ownership) of the item, and the settlement of a price, in which agreement is reached on a price for which transfer of ownership of the item will occur. The ''seller'', not the purchaser, typically executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In the case of indirect interaction, a person who sells goods or service on behalf of the owner is known as a salesman or saleswoman or salesperson, but this often refers to someone selling goods in a store/shop, in which case other terms are also common, including '' salesclerk'', ''shop assistant'', and ...
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Cost Of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the carrying value of goods sold during a particular period. Costs are associated with particular goods using one of the several formulas, including specific identification, first-in first-out (FIFO), or average cost. Costs include all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs that are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of goods made by the businesses include material, labor, and allocated overhead. The costs of those goods which are not yet sold are deferred as costs of inventory until the inventory is sold or written down in value. Overview Many businesses sell goods that they have bought or produced. When the goods are bought or produced, the costs associated with such goods are capitalized as part of inventory (or stock) of goods. These costs are treated as an expense in the period the business recognizes income from sale of the goods. Determining costs requires keeping records of go ...
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FIFO And LIFO Accounting
FIFO and LIFO accounting are methods used in managing inventory and financial matters involving the amount of money a company has to have tied up within inventory of produced goods, raw materials, parts, components, or feedstocks. They are used to manage assumptions of costs related to inventory, stock repurchases (if purchased at different prices), and various other accounting purposes. The following equation is useful when determining inventory costing methods: : \text + \text = : \text + \text FIFO "FIFO" stands for ''first-in, first-out'', meaning that the oldest inventory items are recorded as sold first (but this does not necessarily mean that the exact oldest physical object has been tracked and sold). In other words, the cost associated with the inventory that was purchased first is the cost expensed first. A company might use the LIFO method for accounting purposes, even if it uses FIFO for inventory management purposes (i.e., for the actual storage, shelving, an ...
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Income Statement
An income statement or profit and loss accountProfessional English in Use - Finance, Cambridge University Press, p. 10 (also referred to as a ''profit and loss statement'' (P&L), ''statement of profit or loss'', ''revenue statement'', ''statement of financial performance'', ''earnings statement'', ''statement of earnings'', ''operating statement'', or ''statement of operations'') is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the company's revenues and expenses during a particular period. It indicates how the revenues (also known as the ''“top line”'') are transformed into the net income or net profit (the result after all revenues and expenses have been accounted for). The purpose of the income statement is to show managers and investors whether the company made money (profit) or lost money (loss) during the period being reported. An income statement represents a period of time (as does the cash flow statement). This contrasts with the balance sheet, which ...
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Inventory
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) refers to the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale, production or utilisation. Inventory management is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at different locations within a facility or within many locations of a supply network to precede the regular and planned course of production and stock of materials. The concept of inventory, stock or work in process (or work in progress) has been extended from manufacturing systems to service businesses and projects, by generalizing the definition to be "all work within the process of production—all work that is or has occurred prior to the completion of production". In the context of a manufacturing production system, inventory refers to all work that has occurred—raw materials, partially finished products, finished products prior to sale and departure from the manufacturing system. ...
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Specific Identification
Specific identification is a method of finding out ending inventory cost. It requires a detailed physical count, so that the company knows exactly how many of each good bought on specific dates comprise the year-end inventory. When this information is found, the amount of goods are multiplied by their purchase cost at their purchase date, to get a number for the ending inventory cost. In theory, this method is the best method, since it relates the ending inventory goods directly to the specific price they were bought for. However, this method allows management to easily manipulate ending inventory cost, since they can choose to report that the cheaper goods were sold first, hence increasing ending inventory cost and lowering cost of goods sold. This will increase the income. Alternatively, management can choose to report lower income, to reduce the taxes they needed to pay. This method is also very hard to use on interchangeable goods. For example, it is hard to relate ...
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