Augmented Matrix
In linear algebra, an augmented matrix is a matrix obtained by appending the columns of two given matrices, usually for the purpose of performing the same elementary row operations on each of the given matrices. Given the matrices and , where A = \begin 1 & 3 & 2 \\ 2 & 0 & 1 \\ 5 & 2 & 2 \end , \quad B = \begin 4 \\ 3 \\ 1 \end, the augmented matrix (''A'', ''B'') is written as (A, B) = \left begin 1 & 3 & 2 & 4 \\ 2 & 0 & 1 & 3 \\ 5 & 2 & 2 & 1 \end\right This is useful when solving systems of linear equations. For a given number of unknowns, the number of solutions to a system of linear equations depends only on the rank of the matrix representing the system and the rank of the corresponding augmented matrix. Specifically, according to the Rouché–Capelli theorem, any system of linear equations is inconsistent (has no solutions) if the rank of the augmented matrix is greater than the rank of the coefficient matrix; if, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and fields of engineering, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and computing efficiently with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, it is often used for dealing with firstorder approximations, using the fact that the differential of a multivariate function at a point is the linear ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, \begin1 & 9 & 13 \\20 & 5 & 6 \end is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a "matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra. Therefore, the study of matrices is a large part of linear algebra, and most properties and operations of abstract linear algebra can be expressed in terms of matrices. For example, matrix multiplication represents composition of linear maps. Not all matrices are related to linear algebra. This is, in particular, the case in graph theory, of incidence matrices, and adjacency matrices. ''This article focuses on matrices related to linear algebra, and, unle ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elementary Row Operations
In mathematics, an elementary matrix is a matrix which differs from the identity matrix by one single elementary row operation. The elementary matrices generate the general linear group GL''n''(F) when F is a field. Left multiplication (premultiplication) by an elementary matrix represents elementary row operations, while right multiplication (postmultiplication) represents elementary column operations. Elementary row operations are used in Gaussian elimination to reduce a matrix to row echelon form. They are also used in Gauss–Jordan elimination to further reduce the matrix to reduced row echelon form. Elementary row operations There are three types of elementary matrices, which correspond to three types of row operations (respectively, column operations): ;Row switching: A row within the matrix can be switched with another row. : R_i \leftrightarrow R_j ;Row multiplication: Each element in a row can be multiplied by a nonzero constant. It is also known as ''scaling'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

System Of Linear Equations
In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of one or more linear equations involving the same variable (math), variables. For example, :\begin 3x+2yz=1\\ 2x2y+4z=2\\ x+\fracyz=0 \end is a system of three equations in the three variables . A solution to a linear system is an assignment of values to the variables such that all the equations are simultaneously satisfied. A Equation solving, solution to the system above is given by the Tuple, ordered triple :(x,y,z)=(1,2,2), since it makes all three equations valid. The word "system" indicates that the equations are to be considered collectively, rather than individually. In mathematics, the theory of linear systems is the basis and a fundamental part of linear algebra, a subject which is used in most parts of modern mathematics. Computational algorithms for finding the solutions are an important part of numerical linear algebra, and play a prominent role in engineering, physics, chemistry, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. p. 48, § 1.16 This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of . This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the " nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by . There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics. The rank is commonly denoted by or ; sometimes the parentheses are not written, as in .Alternative notation includes \rho (\Phi) from and . Main definitions In this section, we give some definitions of the rank of a matrix. Many definitions are possible; see Alternative definitions for several of these. The column rank of is the dimension of the column space of , while the row rank of is the dimension of the row space of . A fundamental result in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rouché–Capelli Theorem
In linear algebra, the Rouché–Capelli theorem determines the number of solutions for a system of linear equations, given the rank of its augmented matrix and coefficient matrix. The theorem is variously known as the: * Rouché–Capelli theorem in English speaking countries, Italy and Brazil; * Kronecker–Capelli theorem in Austria, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Russia; * Rouché–Fontené theorem in France; * Rouché–Frobenius theorem in Spain and many countries in Latin America; * Frobenius theorem in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia. Formal statement A system of linear equations with ''n'' variables has a solution if and only if the rank of its coefficient matrix ''A'' is equal to the rank of its augmented matrix ''b'' If there are solutions, they form an affine subspace of \mathbb^n of dimension ''n'' − rank(''A''). In particular: * if ''n'' = rank(''A''), the solution is unique, * otherwise there are infinitely many solutions. Example Cons ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

System Of Linear Equations
In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of one or more linear equations involving the same variable (math), variables. For example, :\begin 3x+2yz=1\\ 2x2y+4z=2\\ x+\fracyz=0 \end is a system of three equations in the three variables . A solution to a linear system is an assignment of values to the variables such that all the equations are simultaneously satisfied. A Equation solving, solution to the system above is given by the Tuple, ordered triple :(x,y,z)=(1,2,2), since it makes all three equations valid. The word "system" indicates that the equations are to be considered collectively, rather than individually. In mathematics, the theory of linear systems is the basis and a fundamental part of linear algebra, a subject which is used in most parts of modern mathematics. Computational algorithms for finding the solutions are an important part of numerical linear algebra, and play a prominent role in engineering, physics, chemistry, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. p. 48, § 1.16 This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of . This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the " nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by . There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics. The rank is commonly denoted by or ; sometimes the parentheses are not written, as in .Alternative notation includes \rho (\Phi) from and . Main definitions In this section, we give some definitions of the rank of a matrix. Many definitions are possible; see Alternative definitions for several of these. The column rank of is the dimension of the column space of , while the row rank of is the dimension of the row space of . A fundamental result in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficient Matrix
In linear algebra, a coefficient matrix is a matrix consisting of the coefficients of the variables in a set of linear equations. The matrix is used in solving systems of linear equations. Coefficient matrix In general, a system with ''m'' linear equations and ''n'' unknowns can be written as : \begin a_ x_1 + a_ x_2 + \cdots + a_ x_n &= b_1 \\ a_ x_1 + a_ x_2 + \cdots + a_ x_n &= b_2 \\ &\;\; \vdots \\ a_ x_1 + a_ x_2 + \cdots + a_ x_n &= b_m \end where x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n are the unknowns and the numbers a_, a_, \ldots, a_ are the coefficients of the system. The coefficient matrix is the ''m'' × ''n'' matrix with the coefficient a_ as the (''i'', ''j'')th entry: : \begin a_ & a_ & \cdots & a_ \\ a_ & a_ &\cdots & a_ \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ a_ & a_ & \cdots & a_ \end Then the above set of equations can be expressed more succinctly as : A\mathbf = \mathbf where ''A'' is the coefficient matrix and b is the column vector of constant terms. Rela ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Matrix
In linear algebra, the identity matrix of size n is the n\times n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. Terminology and notation The identity matrix is often denoted by I_n, or simply by I if the size is immaterial or can be trivially determined by the context. I_1 = \begin 1 \end ,\ I_2 = \begin 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end ,\ I_3 = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end ,\ \dots ,\ I_n = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \end. The term unit matrix has also been widely used, but the term ''identity matrix'' is now standard. The term ''unit matrix'' is ambiguous, because it is also used for a matrix of ones and for any unit of the ring of all n\times n matrices. In some fields, such as group theory or quantum mechanics, the identity matrix is sometimes denoted by a boldface one, \mathbf, or called "id" (short for identity). ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficients
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series, or an expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression (including variables such as , and ). When the coefficients are themselves variables, they may also be called parameters. For example, the polynomial 2x^2x+3 has coefficients 2, −1, and 3, and the powers of the variable x in the polynomial ax^2+bx+c have coefficient parameters a, b, and c. The constant coefficient is the coefficient not attached to variables in an expression. For example, the constant coefficients of the expressions above are the number 3 and the parameter ''c'', respectively. The coefficient attached to the highest degree of the variable in a polynomial is referred to as the leading coefficient. For example, in the expressions above, the leading coefficients are 2 and ''a'', respectively. Terminology and definition In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dover Publications
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward and Blanche Cirker. It primarily reissues books that are out of print from their original publishers. These are often, but not always, books in the public domain. The original published editions may be scarce or historically significant. Dover republishes these books, making them available at a significantly reduced cost. Classic reprints Dover reprints classic works of literature, classical sheet music, and publicdomain images from the 18th and 19th centuries. Dover also publishes an extensive collection of mathematical, scientific, and engineering texts. It often targets its reprints at a niche market, such as woodworking. Starting in 2015, the company branched out into graphic novel reprints, overseen by Dover acquisitions editor and former comics writer and editor Drew Ford. Most Dover reprints are photo facsimiles of the originals, retaining the original pagination and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 