Algebraic Varieties
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Algebraic Varieties
Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry, a sub-field of mathematics. Classically, an algebraic variety is defined as the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations over the real or complex numbers. Modern definitions generalize this concept in several different ways, while attempting to preserve the geometric intuition behind the original definition. Conventions regarding the definition of an algebraic variety differ slightly. For example, some definitions require an algebraic variety to be irreducible, which means that it is not the union of two smaller sets that are closed in the Zariski topology. Under this definition, non-irreducible algebraic varieties are called algebraic sets. Other conventions do not require irreducibility. The fundamental theorem of algebra establishes a link between algebra and geometry by showing that a monic polynomial (an algebraic object) in one variable with complex number coefficients is determine ...
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Twisted Cubic Curve
In mathematics, a twisted cubic is a smooth, rational curve ''C'' of degree three in projective 3-space P3. It is a fundamental example of a skew curve. It is essentially unique, up to projective transformation (''the'' twisted cubic, therefore). In algebraic geometry, the twisted cubic is a simple example of a projective variety that is not linear or a hypersurface, in fact not a complete intersection. It is the three-dimensional case of the rational normal curve, and is the image of a Veronese map of degree three on the projective line. Definition The twisted cubic is most easily given parametrically as the image of the map :\nu:\mathbf^1\to\mathbf^3 which assigns to the homogeneous coordinate :T/math> the value :\nu: :T\mapsto ^3:S^2T:ST^2:T^3 In one coordinate patch of projective space, the map is simply the moment curve :\nu:x \mapsto (x,x^2,x^3) That is, it is the closure by a single point at infinity of the affine curve (x,x^2,x^3). The twisted cubic is a p ...
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Hilbert's Nullstellensatz
In mathematics, Hilbert's Nullstellensatz (German for "theorem of zeros," or more literally, "zero-locus-theorem") is a theorem that establishes a fundamental relationship between geometry and algebra. This relationship is the basis of algebraic geometry. It relates algebraic sets to ideals in polynomial rings over algebraically closed fields. This relationship was discovered by David Hilbert, who proved the Nullstellensatz in his second major paper on invariant theory in 1893 (following his seminal 1890 paper in which he proved Hilbert's basis theorem). Formulation Let ''k'' be a field (such as the rational numbers) and ''K'' be an algebraically closed field extension (such as the complex numbers). Consider the polynomial ring k _1, \ldots, X_n/math> and let ''I'' be an ideal in this ring. The algebraic set V(''I'') defined by this ideal consists of all ''n''-tuples x = (''x''1,...,''x''''n'') in ''Kn'' such that ''f''(x) = 0 for all ''f'' in ''I''. Hilbert's Nullstell ...
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Natural Number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called ''cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called ''ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as '' nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 80000-2, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the non-negative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by succ ...
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Masayoshi Nagata
Masayoshi Nagata (Japanese: 永田 雅宜 ''Nagata Masayoshi''; February 9, 1927 – August 27, 2008) was a Japanese mathematician, known for his work in the field of commutative algebra. Work Nagata's compactification theorem shows that varieties can be embedded in complete varieties. The Chevalley–Iwahori–Nagata theorem describes the quotient of a variety by a group. In 1959 he introduced a counterexample to the general case of Hilbert's fourteenth problem on invariant theory. His 1962 book on local rings contains several other counterexamples he found, such as a commutative Noetherian ring that is not catenary, and a commutative Noetherian ring of infinite dimension. Nagata's conjecture on curves concerns the minimum degree of a plane curve specified to have given multiplicities at given points; see also Seshadri constant. Nagata's conjecture on automorphisms concerns the existence of wild automorphisms of polynomial algebra In mathematics, especially in the ...
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Algebraically Closed Field
In mathematics, a field is algebraically closed if every non-constant polynomial in (the univariate polynomial ring with coefficients in ) has a root in . Examples As an example, the field of real numbers is not algebraically closed, because the polynomial equation ''x''2 + 1 = 0  has no solution in real numbers, even though all its coefficients (1 and 0) are real. The same argument proves that no subfield of the real field is algebraically closed; in particular, the field of rational numbers is not algebraically closed. Also, no finite field ''F'' is algebraically closed, because if ''a''1, ''a''2, ..., ''an'' are the elements of ''F'', then the polynomial (''x'' − ''a''1)(''x'' − ''a''2) ⋯ (''x'' − ''a''''n'') + 1 has no zero in ''F''. By contrast, the fundamental theorem of algebra states that the field of complex numbers is algebraically closed. Another example of an algebraica ...
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Structure Morphism
In mathematics, a canonical map, also called a natural map, is a map or morphism between objects that arises naturally from the definition or the construction of the objects. Often, it is a map which preserves the widest amount of structure. A choice of a canonical map sometimes depends on a convention (e.g., a sign convention). A closely related notion is a structure map or structure morphism; the map or morphism that comes with the given structure on the object. These are also sometimes called canonical maps. A canonical isomorphism is a canonical map that is also an isomorphism (i.e., invertible). In some contexts, it might be necessary to address an issue of ''choices'' of canonical maps or canonical isomorphisms; for a typical example, see prestack. For a discussion of the problem of defining a canonical map see Kevin Buzzard's talk at the 2022 Grothendieck conference. Examples *If ''N'' is a normal subgroup of a group ''G'', then there is a canonical surjective gr ...
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Scheme (mathematics)
In mathematics, a scheme is a mathematical structure that enlarges the notion of algebraic variety in several ways, such as taking account of multiplicities (the equations ''x'' = 0 and ''x''2 = 0 define the same algebraic variety but different schemes) and allowing "varieties" defined over any commutative ring (for example, Fermat curves are defined over the integers). Scheme theory was introduced by Alexander Grothendieck in 1960 in his treatise "Éléments de géométrie algébrique"; one of its aims was developing the formalism needed to solve deep problems of algebraic geometry, such as the Weil conjectures (the last of which was proved by Pierre Deligne). Strongly based on commutative algebra, scheme theory allows a systematic use of methods of topology and homological algebra. Scheme theory also unifies algebraic geometry with much of number theory, which eventually led to Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Formally, a scheme is a topological space together with ...
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Algebraic Surface
In mathematics, an algebraic surface is an algebraic variety of dimension two. In the case of geometry over the field of complex numbers, an algebraic surface has complex dimension two (as a complex manifold, when it is non-singular) and so of dimension four as a smooth manifold. The theory of algebraic surfaces is much more complicated than that of algebraic curves (including the compact Riemann surfaces, which are genuine surfaces of (real) dimension two). Many results were obtained, however, in the Italian school of algebraic geometry, and are up to 100 years old. Classification by the Kodaira dimension In the case of dimension one varieties are classified by only the topological genus, but dimension two, the difference between the arithmetic genus p_a and the geometric genus p_g turns to be important because we cannot distinguish birationally only the topological genus. Then we introduce the irregularity for the classification of them. A summary of the results (in d ...
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Algebraic Curve
In mathematics, an affine algebraic plane curve is the zero set of a polynomial in two variables. A projective algebraic plane curve is the zero set in a projective plane of a homogeneous polynomial in three variables. An affine algebraic plane curve can be completed in a projective algebraic plane curve by homogenizing its defining polynomial. Conversely, a projective algebraic plane curve of homogeneous equation can be restricted to the affine algebraic plane curve of equation . These two operations are each inverse to the other; therefore, the phrase algebraic plane curve is often used without specifying explicitly whether it is the affine or the projective case that is considered. More generally, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety of dimension one. Equivalently, an algebraic curve is an algebraic variety that is birationally equivalent to an algebraic plane curve. If the curve is contained in an affine space or a projective space, one can take a projection for su ...
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Dimension Of An Algebraic Variety
In mathematics and specifically in algebraic geometry, the dimension of an algebraic variety may be defined in various equivalent ways. Some of these definitions are of geometric nature, while some other are purely algebraic and rely on commutative algebra. Some are restricted to algebraic varieties while others apply also to any algebraic set. Some are intrinsic, as independent of any embedding of the variety into an affine or projective space, while other are related to such an embedding. Dimension of an affine algebraic set Let be a field, and be an algebraically closed extension. An affine algebraic set is the set of the common zeros in of the elements of an ideal in a polynomial ring R=K _1, \ldots, x_n Let A=R/I be the algebra of the polynomial functions over . The dimension of is any of the following integers. It does not change if is enlarged, if is replaced by another algebraically closed extension of and if is replaced by another ideal having the same ...
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Singular Point Of An Algebraic Variety
In the mathematical field of algebraic geometry, a singular point of an algebraic variety is a point that is 'special' (so, singular), in the geometric sense that at this point the tangent space at the variety may not be regularly defined. In case of varieties defined over the reals, this notion generalizes the notion of local non-flatness. A point of an algebraic variety which is not singular is said to be regular. An algebraic variety which has no singular point is said to be non-singular or smooth. Definition A plane curve defined by an implicit equation :F(x,y)=0, where is a smooth function is said to be ''singular'' at a point if the Taylor series of has order at least at this point. The reason for this is that, in differential calculus, the tangent at the point of such a curve is defined by the equation :(x-x_0)F'_x(x_0,y_0) + (y-y_0)F'_y(x_0,y_0)=0, whose left-hand side is the term of degree one of the Taylor expansion. Thus, if this term is zero, the tangent may n ...
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Manifold
In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an n-dimensional manifold, or ''n-manifold'' for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of n-dimensional Euclidean space. One-dimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not lemniscates. Two-dimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane. The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows complicated structures to be described in terms of well-understood topological properties of simpler spaces. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions. The concept has applications in computer-graphics given the need to associate pictures with coordinates ...
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