Ztransform
In mathematics and signal processing, the Ztransform converts a discretetime signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequencydomain (zdomain or zplane) representation. It can be considered as a discretetime equivalent of the Laplace transform (sdomain). This similarity is explored in the theory of timescale calculus. Whereas the continuoustime Fourier transform is evaluated on the Laplace sdomain's imaginary line, the discretetime Fourier transform is evaluated over the unit circle of the zdomain. What is roughly the sdomain's left halfplane, is now the inside of the complex unit circle; what is the zdomain's outside of the unit circle, roughly corresponds to the right halfplane of the sdomain. One of the means of designing digital filters is to take analog designs, subject them to a bilinear transform which maps them from the sdomain to the zdomain, and then produce the digital filter by inspection, manipulation, or numeric ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Impulse Response
In signal processing, a finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a filter whose impulse response (or response to any finite length input) is of ''finite'' duration, because it settles to zero in finite time. This is in contrast to infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, which may have internal feedback and may continue to respond indefinitely (usually decaying). The impulse response (that is, the output in response to a Kronecker delta input) of an Nthorder discretetime FIR filter lasts exactly N+1 samples (from first nonzero element through last nonzero element) before it then settles to zero. FIR filters can be discretetime or continuoustime, and digital or analog. Definition For a causal discretetime FIR filter of order ''N'', each value of the output sequence is a weighted sum of the most recent input values: :\begin y &= b_0 x + b_1 x 1+ \cdots + b_N x N\\ &= \sum_^N b_i\cdot x i \end where: * x /math> is the input signal, * y /math> is the output signa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Laplace Transform
In mathematics, the Laplace transform, named after its discoverer PierreSimon Laplace (), is an integral transform In mathematics, an integral transform maps a function from its original function space into another function space via integration, where some of the properties of the original function might be more easily characterized and manipulated than in ... that converts a Function (mathematics), function of a Real number, real Variable (mathematics), variable (usually t, in the ''time domain'') to a function of a Complex number, complex variable s (in the complex frequency domain, also known as ''s''domain, or splane). The transform has many applications in science and engineering because it is a tool for solving differential equations. In particular, it transforms ordinary differential equations into algebraic equations and convolution into multiplication. For suitable functions ''f'', the Laplace transform is the integral \mathcal\(s) = \int_0^\infty f(t)e^ \, dt. H ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Digital Filter
In signal processing, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discretetime signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal. This is in contrast to the other major type of electronic filter, the analog filter, which is typically an electronic circuit operating on continuoustime analog signals. A digital filter system usually consists of an analogtodigital converter (ADC) to sample the input signal, followed by a microprocessor and some peripheral components such as memory to store data and filter coefficients etc. Program Instructions (software) running on the microprocessor implement the digital filter by performing the necessary mathematical operations on the numbers received from the ADC. In some high performance applications, an FPGA or ASIC is used instead of a general purpose microprocessor, or a specialized digital signal processor (DSP) with specific paralleled architecture for expediting operations such as filter ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discretetime Fourier Transform
In mathematics, the discretetime Fourier transform (DTFT) is a form of Fourier analysis that is applicable to a sequence of values. The DTFT is often used to analyze samples of a continuous function. The term ''discretetime'' refers to the fact that the transform operates on discrete data, often samples whose interval has units of time. From uniformly spaced samples it produces a function of frequency that is a periodic summation of the continuous Fourier transform of the original continuous function. Under certain theoretical conditions, described by the sampling theorem, the original continuous function can be recovered perfectly from the DTFT and thus from the original discrete samples. The DTFT itself is a continuous function of frequency, but discrete samples of it can be readily calculated via the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) (see ), which is by far the most common method of modern Fourier analysis. Both transforms are invertible. The inverse DTFT is the origin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Twosided Laplace Transform
In mathematics, the twosided Laplace transform or bilateral Laplace transform is an integral transform equivalent to probability's moment generating function. Twosided Laplace transforms are closely related to the Fourier transform, the Mellin transform, the Ztransform and the ordinary or onesided Laplace transform. If ''f''(''t'') is a real or complexvalued function of the real variable ''t'' defined for all real numbers, then the twosided Laplace transform is defined by the integral :\mathcal\(s) = F(s) = \int_^\infty e^ f(t)\, dt. The integral is most commonly understood as an improper integral, which converges if and only if both integrals :\int_0^\infty e^ f(t) \, dt,\quad \int_^0 e^ f(t)\, dt exist. There seems to be no generally accepted notation for the twosided transform; the \mathcal used here recalls "bilateral". The twosided transform used by some authors is :\mathcal\(s) = s\mathcal\(s) = sF(s) = s \int_^\infty e^ f(t)\, dt. In pure mathematics the argum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generating Function
In mathematics, a generating function is a way of encoding an infinite sequence of numbers () by treating them as the coefficients of a formal power series. This series is called the generating function of the sequence. Unlike an ordinary series, the ''formal'' power series is not required to converge: in fact, the generating function is not actually regarded as a function, and the "variable" remains an indeterminate. Generating functions were first introduced by Abraham de Moivre in 1730, in order to solve the general linear recurrence problem. One can generalize to formal power series in more than one indeterminate, to encode information about infinite multidimensional arrays of numbers. There are various types of generating functions, including ordinary generating functions, exponential generating functions, Lambert series, Bell series, and Dirichlet series; definitions and examples are given below. Every sequence in principle has a generating function of each type (except ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Laurent Series
In mathematics, the Laurent series of a complex function f(z) is a representation of that function as a power series which includes terms of negative degree. It may be used to express complex functions in cases where a Taylor series expansion cannot be applied. The Laurent series was named after and first published by Pierre Alphonse Laurent in 1843. Karl Weierstrass may have discovered it first in a paper written in 1841, but it was not published until after his death.. Definition The Laurent series for a complex function f(z) about a point c is given by f(z) = \sum_^\infty a_n(zc)^n, where a_n and c are constants, with a_n defined by a line integral that generalizes Cauchy's integral formula: a_n =\frac\oint_\gamma \frac \, dz. The path of integration \gamma is counterclockwise around a Jordan curve enclosing c and lying in an annulus A in which f(z) is holomorphic (analytic). The expansion for f(z) will then be valid anywhere inside the annulus. The annulus is shown in red ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frequencydomain
In physics, electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time. Put simply, a timedomain graph shows how a signal changes over time, whereas a frequencydomain graph shows how much of the signal lies within each given frequency band over a range of frequencies. A frequencydomain representation can also include information on the phase shift that must be applied to each sinusoid in order to be able to recombine the frequency components to recover the original time signal. A given function or signal can be converted between the time and frequency domains with a pair of mathematical operators called transforms. An example is the Fourier transform, which converts a time function into a complex valued sum or integral of sine waves of different frequencies, with amplitudes and phases, each of which represents a frequency component. The "spectrum" of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Timescale Calculus
In mathematics, timescale calculus is a unification of the theory of difference equations with that of differential equations, unifying integral and differential calculus with the calculus of finite differences, offering a formalism for studying hybrid systems. It has applications in any field that requires simultaneous modelling of discrete and continuous data. It gives a new definition of a derivative such that if one differentiates a function defined on the real numbers then the definition is equivalent to standard differentiation, but if one uses a function defined on the integers then it is equivalent to the forward difference operator. History Timescale calculus was introduced in 1988 by the German mathematician Stefan Hilger. However, similar ideas have been used before and go back at least to the introduction of the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, which unifies sums and integrals. Dynamic equations Many results concerning differential equations carry over quite easily to c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abraham De Moivre
Abraham de Moivre FRS (; 26 May 166727 November 1754) was a French mathematician known for de Moivre's formula, a formula that links complex numbers and trigonometry, and for his work on the normal distribution and probability theory. He moved to England at a young age due to the religious persecution of Huguenots in France which reached a climax in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau. He was a friend of Isaac Newton, Edmond Halley, and James Stirling. Among his fellow Huguenot exiles in England, he was a colleague of the editor and translator Pierre des Maizeaux. De Moivre wrote a book on probability theory, ''The Doctrine of Chances'', said to have been prized by gamblers. De Moivre first discovered Binet's formula, the closedform expression for Fibonacci numbers linking the ''n''th power of the golden ratio ''φ'' to the ''n''th Fibonacci number. He also was the first to postulate the central limit theorem, a cornerstone of probability theory. Life Early years Abraham ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Imaginary Unit
The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number () is a solution to the quadratic equation x^2+1=0. Although there is no real number with this property, can be used to extend the real numbers to what are called complex numbers, using addition and multiplication. A simple example of the use of in a complex number is 2+3i. Imaginary numbers are an important mathematical concept; they extend the real number system \mathbb to the complex number system \mathbb, in which at least one root for every nonconstant polynomial exists (see Algebraic closure and Fundamental theorem of algebra). Here, the term "imaginary" is used because there is no real number having a negative square. There are two complex square roots of −1: and i, just as there are two complex square roots of every real number other than zero (which has one double square root). In contexts in which use of the letter is ambiguous or problematic, the letter or the Greek \iota is sometimes used instead. For example, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 