Write Ahead Logging
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Write Ahead Logging
In computer science, write-ahead logging (WAL) is a family of techniques for providing atomicity and durability (two of the ACID properties) in database systems. A write ahead log is an append-only auxiliary disk-resident structure used for crash and transaction recovery. The changes are first recorded in the log, which must be written to stable storage, before the changes are written to the database. The main functionality of a write-ahead log can be summarized as: * Allow the page cache to buffer updates to disk-resident pages while ensuring durability semantics in the larger context of a database system. * Persist all operations on disk until the cached copies of pages affected by these operations are synchronized on disk. Every operation that modifies the database state has to be logged on disk before the contents on the associated pages can be modified * Allow lost in-memory changes to be reconstructed from the operation log in case of a crash. In a system using WAL, all m ...
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Computer Science
Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to practical disciplines (including the design and implementation of hardware and software). Computer science is generally considered an area of academic research and distinct from computer programming. Algorithms and data structures are central to computer science. The theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them. The fields of cryptography and computer security involve studying the means for secure communication and for preventing security vulnerabilities. Computer graphics and computational geometry address the generation of images. Programming language theory considers different ways to describe computational processes, and database theory concerns the management of repositories o ...
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Atomicity (database Systems)
In database systems, atomicity (; from grc, ἄτομος, átomos, undividable) is one of the ACID (''Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability'') transaction properties. An atomic transaction is an ''indivisible'' and '' irreducible'' series of database operations such that either ''all'' occurs, or ''nothing'' occurs. A guarantee of atomicity prevents updates to the database occurring only partially, which can cause greater problems than rejecting the whole series outright. As a consequence, the transaction cannot be observed to be in progress by another database client. At one moment in time, it has not yet happened, and at the next it has already occurred in whole (or nothing happened if the transaction was cancelled in progress). An example of an atomic transaction is a monetary transfer from bank account A to account B. It consists of two operations, withdrawing the money from account A and saving it to account B. Performing these operations in an atomic transaction ...
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Durability (database Systems)
In database systems, durability is the ACID property which guarantees that transactions that have committed will survive permanently. For example, if a flight booking reports that a seat has successfully been booked, then the seat will remain booked even if the system crashes. Durability can be achieved by flushing the transaction's log records to non-volatile storage before acknowledging commitment. In distributed transactions, all participating servers must coordinate before commit can be acknowledged. This is usually done by a two-phase commit protocol. Many DBMSs implement durability by writing transactions into a transaction log that can be reprocessed to recreate the system state right before any later failure. A transaction is deemed committed only after it is entered in the log. See also * Atomicity * Consistency * Isolation * Relational database management system A relational database is a (most commonly digital) database based on the relational model of dat ...
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ACID
In computer science, ACID ( atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) is a set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee data validity despite errors, power failures, and other mishaps. In the context of databases, a sequence of database operations that satisfies the ACID properties (which can be perceived as a single logical operation on the data) is called a ''transaction''. For example, a transfer of funds from one bank account to another, even involving multiple changes such as debiting one account and crediting another, is a single transaction. In 1983, Andreas Reuter and Theo Härder coined the acronym ''ACID'', building on earlier work by Jim Gray who named atomicity, consistency, and durability, but not isolation, when characterizing the transaction concept. These four properties are the major guarantees of the transaction paradigm, which has influenced many aspects of development in database systems. According to Gray and Reuter, the IBM Inf ...
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Database System
In computing, a database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically. Small databases can be stored on a file system, while large databases are hosted on computer clusters or cloud storage. The design of databases spans formal techniques and practical considerations, including data modeling, efficient data representation and storage, query languages, security and privacy of sensitive data, and distributed computing issues, including supporting concurrent access and fault tolerance. A database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a database system. Often the term "database" is also used loosely to refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an applicat ...
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Stable Storage
Stable storage is a classification of computer data storage technology that guarantees atomicity for any given write operation and allows software to be written that is robust against some hardware and power failures. To be considered atomic, upon reading back a just written-to portion of the disk, the storage subsystem must return either the write data or the data that was on that portion of the disk before the write operations. Most computer disk drives are not considered stable storage because they do not guarantee atomic write; an error could be returned upon subsequent read of the disk where it was just written to in lieu of either the new or prior data. Implementation Multiple techniques have been developed to achieve the atomic property from weakly atomic devices such as disks. Writing data to a disk in two places in a specific way is one technique and can be done by application software. Most often though, stable storage functionality is achieved by mirroring data on s ...
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Database Log
In the field of databases in computer science, a transaction log (also transaction journal, database log, binary log or audit trail) is a history of actions executed by a database management system used to guarantee ACID properties over crashes or hardware failures. Physically, a log is a file listing changes to the database, stored in a stable storage format. If, after a start, the database is found in an inconsistent state or not been shut down properly, the database management system reviews the database logs for uncommitted transactions and rolls back the changes made by these transactions. Additionally, all transactions that are already committed but whose changes were not yet materialized in the database are re-applied. Both are done to ensure atomicity and durability of transactions. This term is not to be confused with other, human-readable logs that a database management system usually provides. In database management systems, a journal is the record of data alt ...
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Application Checkpointing
Checkpointing is a technique that provides fault tolerance for computing systems. It basically consists of saving a snapshot of the application's state, so that applications can restart from that point in case of failure. This is particularly important for long running applications that are executed in failure-prone computing systems. Checkpointing in distributed systems In the distributed computing environment, checkpointing is a technique that helps tolerate failures that otherwise would force long-running application to restart from the beginning. The most basic way to implement checkpointing, is to stop the application, copy all the required data from the memory to reliable storage (e.g., parallel file system) and then continue with the execution. In case of failure, when the application restarts, it does not need to start from scratch. Rather, it will read the latest state ("the checkpoint") from the stable storage and execute from that. While there is ongoing debate on w ...
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In-place Algorithm
In computer science, an in-place algorithm is an algorithm which transforms input using no auxiliary data structure. However, a small amount of extra storage space is allowed for auxiliary variables. The input is usually overwritten by the output as the algorithm executes. An in-place algorithm updates its input sequence only through replacement or swapping of elements. An algorithm which is not in-place is sometimes called not-in-place or out-of-place. In-place can have slightly different meanings. In its strictest form, the algorithm can only have a constant amount of extra space, counting everything including function calls and pointers. However, this form is very limited as simply having an index to a length array requires bits. More broadly, in-place means that the algorithm does not use extra space for manipulating the input but may require a small though nonconstant extra space for its operation. Usually, this space is , though sometimes anything in is allowed. Note t ...
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Shadow Paging
In computer science, shadow paging is a technique for providing atomicity and durability (two of the ACID properties) in database systems. A ''page'' in this context refers to a unit of physical storage (probably on a hard disk), typically of the order of 1 to 64 KiB. Shadow paging is a copy-on-write technique for avoiding in-place updates of pages. Instead, when a page is to be modified, a ''shadow page'' is allocated. Since the shadow page has no references (from other pages on disk), it can be modified liberally, without concern for consistency constraints, etc. When the page is ready to become durable, all pages that referred to the original are updated to refer to the new replacement page instead. Because the page is "activated" only when it is ready, it is atomic. If the referring pages must also be updated via shadow paging, this procedure may recurse many times, becoming quite costly. One solution, employed by the Write Anywhere File Layout (WAFL) file system ...
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Algorithms For Recovery And Isolation Exploiting Semantics
In computer science, Algorithms for Recovery and Isolation Exploiting Semantics, or ARIES is a recovery algorithm designed to work with a no-force, steal database approach; it is used by IBM Db2, Microsoft SQL Server and many other database systems. IBM Fellow Dr. C. Mohan is the primary inventor of the ARIES family of algorithms. Three main principles lie behind ARIES * Write-ahead logging: Any change to an object is first recorded in the log Log most often refers to: * Trunk (botany), the stem and main wooden axis of a tree, called logs when cut ** Logging, cutting down trees for logs ** Firewood, logs used for fuel ** Lumber or timber, converted from wood logs * Logarithm, in mathe ..., and the log must be written to stable storage before changes to the object are written to disk. * Repeating history during Redo: On restart after a crash, ARIES retraces the actions of a database before the crash and brings the system back to the exact state that it was in before the cras ...
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File System
In computing, file system or filesystem (often abbreviated to fs) is a method and data structure that the operating system uses to control how data is stored and retrieved. Without a file system, data placed in a storage medium would be one large body of data with no way to tell where one piece of data stopped and the next began, or where any piece of data was located when it was time to retrieve it. By separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the data are easily isolated and identified. Taking its name from the way a paper-based data management system is named, each group of data is called a " file". The structure and logic rules used to manage the groups of data and their names is called a "file system." There are many kinds of file systems, each with unique structure and logic, properties of speed, flexibility, security, size and more. Some file systems have been designed to be used for specific applications. For example, the ISO 9660 file system is desig ...
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