Weierstrass
Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (german: link=no, Weierstraß ; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern mathematical analysis, analysis". Despite leaving university without a degree, he studied mathematics and trained as a school teacher, eventually teaching mathematics, physics, botany and gymnastics. He later received an honorary doctorate and became professor of mathematics in Berlin. Among many other contributions, Weierstrass formalized the definition of the Continuous function, continuity of a function, proved the intermediate value theorem and the Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, and used the latter to study the properties of continuous functions on closed bounded intervals. Biography Weierstrass was born into a Roman Catholic family in Ostenfelde, a village near Ennigerloh, in the Province of Westphalia. Weierstrass was the son of Wilhelm Weierstrass, a government official, and Theodora Vonderforst both of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weierstrass Function
In mathematics, the Weierstrass function is an example of a realvalued function (mathematics), function that is continuous function, continuous everywhere but Differentiable function, differentiable nowhere. It is an example of a fractal curve. It is named after its discoverer Karl Weierstrass. The Weierstrass function has historically served the role of a pathological (mathematics), pathological function, being the first published example (1872) specifically concocted to challenge the notion that every continuous function is differentiable except on a set of isolated points. Weierstrass's demonstration that continuity did not imply almosteverywhere differentiability upended mathematics, overturning several proofs that relied on geometric intuition and vague definitions of smoothness. These types of functions were denounced by contemporaries: Henri Poincaré famously described them as "monsters" and called Weierstrass' work "an outrage against common sense", while Charles Herm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bolzano–Weierstrass Theorem
In mathematics, specifically in real analysis, the Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, named after Bernard Bolzano and Karl Weierstrass, is a fundamental result about convergence in a finitedimensional Euclidean space \R^n. The theorem states that each infinite bounded sequence in \R^n has a limit of a sequence, convergent subsequence. An equivalent formulation is that a subset of \R^n is Sequentially compact space, sequentially compact if and only if it is closed set, closed and bounded set, bounded. The theorem is sometimes called the sequential compactness theorem. History and significance The Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem is named after mathematicians Bernard Bolzano and Karl Weierstrass. It was actually first proved by Bolzano in 1817 as a Lemma (mathematics), lemma in the proof of the intermediate value theorem. Some fifty years later the result was identified as significant in its own right, and proved again by Weierstrass. It has since become an essential theorem of Real ana ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weierstrass Theorem (other)
Several theorems are named after Karl Weierstrass. These include: *The Weierstrass approximation theorem, of which one well known generalization is the Stone–Weierstrass theorem *The Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, which ensures compactness of closed and bounded sets in R''n'' *The Weierstrass extreme value theorem, which states that a continuous function on a closed and bounded set obtains its extreme values *The Weierstrass–Casorati theorem describes the behavior of holomorphic functions near essential singularities *The Weierstrass preparation theorem describes the behavior of analytic functions near a specified point *The Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem concerning the transcendental numbers *The Weierstrass factorization theorem In mathematics, and particularly in the field of complex analysis, the Weierstrass factorization theorem asserts that every entire function can be represented as a (possibly infinite) product involving its zeroes. The theorem may be viewed as an e .. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sofia Kovalevskaya
Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (russian: link=no, Софья Васильевна Ковалевская), born KorvinKrukovskaya ( – 10 February 1891), was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics. She was a pioneer for women in mathematics around the world – the first woman to obtain a doctorate (in the modern sense) in mathematics, the first woman appointed to a full professorship in northern Europe and one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor. According to historian of science Ann Hibner Koblitz, Kovalevskaya was "the greatest known woman scientist before the twentieth century". Historian of mathematics Roger Cooke writes: Her sister was the socialist Anne Jaclard. There are several alternative transliterations of her name. She herself used Sophie Kowalevski (or occasionally Kowalevsky) in her academic publications. Background and early education Sofya Kovalevskaya ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weierstrass–Erdmann Condition
The Weierstrass–Erdmann condition is a mathematical result from the calculus of variations, which specifies sufficient conditions for broken extremals (that is, an extremal which is constrained to be smooth except at a finite number of "corners"). Conditions The WeierstrassErdmann corner conditions stipulate that a broken extremal y(x) of a functional J=\int\limits_a^b f(x,y,y')\,dx satisfies the following two continuity relations at each corner c\in ,b/math>: Applications The condition allows one to prove that a corner exists along a given extremal. As a result, there are many applications to differential geometry Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that studies the geometry of smooth shapes and smooth spaces, otherwise known as smooth manifolds. It uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multili .... In calculations of the Weierstrass EFunction, it is often helpful to find where corners exist along the cu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Christoph Gudermann
Christoph Gudermann (25 March 1798 – 25 September 1852) was a German mathematician noted for introducing the Gudermannian function and the concept of uniform convergence, and for being the teacher of Karl Weierstrass, who was greatly influenced by Gudermann's course on elliptic functions in 1839–1840, the first such course to be taught in any institute. Biography Gudermann was born in Vienenburg. He was the son of a school teacher and became a teacher himself after studying at the University of Göttingen, where his academic advisor was Karl Friedrich Gauss. He began his teaching career in Kleve and then transferred to a school in Münster. Gudermann introduced the concept of uniform convergence in an 1838 paper on elliptic functions, but only observed it informally, neither formalizing it nor using it in his proofs. Instead, Weierstrass elaborated and applied uniform convergence. His researches into spherical geometry and special functions focused on particular cases, s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Georg Frobenius
Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (26 October 1849 – 3 August 1917) was a German mathematician, best known for his contributions to the theory of elliptic functions, differential equations, number theory, and to group theory. He is known for the famous determinantal identities, known as Frobenius–Stickelberger formulae, governing elliptic functions, and for developing the theory of biquadratic forms. He was also the first to introduce the notion of rational approximations of functions (nowadays known as Padé approximants), and gave the first full proof for the Cayley–Hamilton theorem. He also lent his name to certain differentialgeometric objects in modern mathematical physics, known as Frobenius manifolds. Biography Ferdinand Georg Frobenius was born on 26 October 1849 in Charlottenburg, a suburb of Berlin from parents Christian Ferdinand Frobenius, a Protestant parson, and Christine Elizabeth Friedrich. He entered the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in 1860 when he was nearly eleven. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hermann Schwarz
Karl Hermann Amandus Schwarz (; 25 January 1843 – 30 November 1921) was a German mathematician, known for his work in complex analysis. Life Schwarz was born in Hermsdorf, Silesia (now Jerzmanowa, Poland). In 1868 he married Marie Kummer, who was the daughter to the mathematician Ernst Eduard Kummer and Ottilie née Mendelssohn (a daughter of Nathan Mendelssohn's and granddaughter of Moses Mendelssohn). Schwarz and Kummer had six children, including his daughter Emily Schwarz. Schwarz originally studied chemistry in Berlin but Ernst Eduard Kummer and Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass persuaded him to change to mathematics. He received his Ph.D. from the Universität Berlin in 1864 and was advised by Kummer and Weierstrass. Between 1867 and 1869 he worked at the University of Halle, then at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic. From 1875 he worked at Göttingen University, dealing with the subjects of complex analysis, differential geometry and the calculus of variations ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

(ε, δ)definition Of Limit
Although the function (sin ''x'')/''x'' is not defined at zero, as ''x'' becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin ''x'')/''x'' becomes arbitrarily close to 1. In other words, the limit of (sin ''x'')/''x'', as ''x'' approaches zero, equals 1. In mathematics, the limit of a function is a fundamental concept in calculus and analysis concerning the behavior of that function near a particular input. Formal definitions, first devised in the early 19th century, are given below. Informally, a function ''f'' assigns an output ''f''(''x'') to every input ''x''. We say that the function has a limit ''L'' at an input ''p,'' if ''f''(''x'') gets closer and closer to ''L'' as ''x'' moves closer and closer to ''p''. More specifically, when ''f'' is applied to any input ''sufficiently'' close to ''p'', the output value is forced ''arbitrarily'' close to ''L''. On the other hand, if some inputs very close to ''p'' are taken to outputs that stay a fixed distance apart, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Georg Cantor
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor ( , ; – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. He played a pivotal role in the creation of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of onetoone correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and wellordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an infinity of infinities. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact he was well aware of. Originally, Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers was regarded as counterintuitive – even shocking. This caused it to encounter resistance from mathematical contemporaries such as Leopold Kronecker and Henri Poincaré and later from Hermann Weyl and L. E. J. Brouwer, while Ludwig Wittgenstein raised ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wilhelm Killing
Wilhelm Karl Joseph Killing (10 May 1847 – 11 February 1923) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to the theories of Lie algebras, Lie groups, and nonEuclidean geometry. Life Killing studied at the University of Münster and later wrote his dissertation under Karl Weierstrass and Ernst Kummer at Berlin in 1872. He taught in gymnasia (secondary schools) from 1868 to 1872. He became a professor at the seminary college Collegium Hosianum in Braunsberg (now Braniewo). He took holy orders in order to take his teaching position. He became rector of the college and chair of the town council. As a professor and administrator Killing was widely liked and respected. Finally, in 1892 he became professor at the University of Münster. In 1886, Killing and his spouse entered the Third Order of Franciscans. Work In 1878 Killing wrote on space forms in terms of nonEuclidean geometry in Crelle's Journal, which he further developed in 1880 as well as in 1885. Re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ludwig Stickelberger
Ludwig Stickelberger (18 May 1850 – 11 April 1936) was a Swiss mathematician who made important contributions to linear algebra (theory of elementary divisors) and algebraic number theory (Stickelberger relation in the theory of cyclotomic fields). Short biography Stickelberger was born in Buch in the canton of Schaffhausen into a family of a pastor. He graduated from a gymnasium in 1867 and studied next in the University of Heidelberg. In 1874 he received a doctorate in Berlin under the direction of Karl Weierstrass for his work on the transformation of quadratic forms to a diagonal form. In the same year, he obtained his Habilitation from Polytechnicum in Zurich (now ETH Zurich). In 1879 he became an extraordinary professor in the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg. From 1896 to 1919 he worked there as a full professor, and from 1919 until his return to Basel in 1924 he held the title of a distinguished professor ("ordentlicher Honorarprofessor"). He was married in 1 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 