TheInfoList picture info Vertex (curve) In the geometry of plane curves, a vertex is a point of where the first derivative of curvature is zero. This is typically a local maximum or minimum of curvature, and some authors define a vertex to be more specifically a local extreme point of curvature. However, other special cases may occur, for instance when the second derivative is also zero, or when the curvature is constant. For space curves, on the other hand, a vertex is a point where the torsion vanishes. Examples A hyperbola has two vertices, one on each branch; they are the closest of any two points lying on opposite branches of the hyperbola, and they lie on the principal axis. On a parabola, the sole vertex lies on the axis of symmetry and in a quadratic of the form: :ax^2 + bx + c\,\! it can be found by completing the square or by differentiation., p. 127. On an ellipse, two of the four vertices lie on the major axis and two lie on the minor axis. For a circle, which has constant curvature, every point is a verte ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Ellipse Evolute In mathematics, an ellipse is a plane curve surrounding two focal points, such that for all points on the curve, the sum of the two distances to the focal points is a constant. As such, it generalizes a circle, which is the special type of ellipse in which the two focal points are the same. The elongation of an ellipse is measured by its eccentricity e, a number ranging from e = 0 (the limiting case of a circle) to e = 1 (the limiting case of infinite elongation, no longer an ellipse but a parabola). An ellipse has a simple algebraic solution for its area, but only approximations for its perimeter, for which integration is required to obtain an exact solution. Analytically, the equation of a standard ellipse centered at the origin with width 2a and height 2b is: : \frac+\frac = 1 . Assuming a \ge b, the foci are (\pm c, 0) for c = \sqrt. The standard parametric equation is: : (x,y) = (a\cos(t),b\sin(t)) \quad \text \quad 0\leq t\leq 2\pi. Ellipses are the closed type of conic ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Evolute The evolute of a curve (in this case, an ellipse) is the envelope of its normals. In the differential geometry of curves, the evolute of a curve is the locus of all its centers of curvature. That is to say that when the center of curvature of each point on a curve is drawn, the resultant shape will be the evolute of that curve. The evolute of a circle is therefore a single point at its center. Equivalently, an evolute is the envelope of the normals to a curve. The evolute of a curve, a surface, or more generally a submanifold, is the caustic of the normal map. Let be a smooth, regular submanifold in . For each point in and each vector , based at and normal to , we associate the point . This defines a Lagrangian map, called the normal map. The caustic of the normal map is the evolute of . Evolutes are closely connected to involutes: A curve is the evolute of any of its involutes. History Apollonius ( 200 BC) discussed evolutes in Book V of his ''Conics''. However, Huygen ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Monatshefte Für Mathematik '' Monatshefte für Mathematik'' is a peer-reviewed mathematics journal established in 1890. Among its well-known papers is "Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme I" by Kurt Gödel, published in 1931. The journal was founded by Gustav von Escherich and Emil Weyr in 1890 as ''Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik'' and published until 1941. In 1947 it was reestablished by Johann Radon under its current title. It is currently published by Springer in cooperation with the Austrian Mathematical Society. The journal is indexed by ''Mathematical Reviews'' and Zentralblatt MATH. Its 2009 MCQ was 0.58, and its 2009 impact factor was 0.764. External links *''Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik''vol. 1–29 (1890–1918) at ALO''Monatshefte für Mathematik''vol. 52–126 (1948–1998) at GDZ Mathematics journals Publications established in 1890 English-language journals Springer Science+ ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Lens (optics) A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses (''elements''), usually arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, and are ground and polished or molded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism, which refracts light without focusing. Devices that similarly focus or disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are also called lenses, such as microwave lenses, electron lenses, acoustic lenses, or explosive lenses. Lenses are used in various imaging devices like telescopes, binoculars and cameras. They are also used as visual aids in glasses to correct defects of vision such as myopia and hypermetropia. History The word ''lens'' comes from '' lēns '', the Latin name of the lentil, because a double-convex lens is le ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Vertex (optics) In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system. These are the focal points, the principal points, and the nodal points. For ''ideal'' systems, the basic imaging properties such as image size, location, and orientation are completely determined by the locations of the cardinal points; in fact only four points are necessary: the focal points and either the principal or nodal points. The only ideal system that has been achieved in practice is the plane mirror, however the cardinal points are widely used to ''approximate'' the behavior of real optical systems. Cardinal points provide a way to analytically simplify a system with many components, allowing the imaging characteristics of the system to be approximately determined with simple calculations. Explanation The cardinal points lie on the optical axis of the optical system. Each point is defined by the effect the optical syste ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Reflection Symmetry 250px, Figures with the axes of asymmetric.">asymmetry">asymmetric. Reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, is symmetry with respect to reflection. That is, a figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection has reflectional symmetry. In 2D there is a line/axis of symmetry, in 3D a plane of symmetry. An object or figure which is indistinguishable from its transformed image is called mirror symmetric. In conclusion, a line of symmetry splits the shape in half and those halves should be identical. Symmetric function In formal terms, a mathematical object is symmetric with respect to a given operation such as reflection, rotation or translation, if, when applied to the object, this operation preserves some property of the object. The set of operations that preserve a given property of the object form a group. Two objects are symmetric to each other with respect to a given group of operations if one is obtained from the other by some of t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Curve Of Constant Width In geometry, a curve of constant width is a simple closed curve in the plane whose width (the distance between parallel supporting lines) is the same in all directions. The shape bounded by a curve of constant width is a body of constant width or an orbiform, the name given to these shapes by Leonhard Euler. Standard examples are the circle and the Reuleaux triangle. These curves can also be constructed using circular arcs centered at crossings of an arrangement of lines, as the involutes of certain curves, or by intersecting circles centered on a partial curve. Every body of constant width is a convex set, its boundary crossed at most twice by any line, and if the line crosses perpendicularly it does so at both crossings, separated by the width. By Barbier's theorem, the body's perimeter is exactly times its width, but its area depends on its shape, with the Reuleaux triangle having the smallest possible area for its width and the circle the largest. Every superset of a body of c ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Four-vertex Theorem An ellipse (red) and its evolute (blue), showing the four vertices of the curve, each vertex corresponding to a cusp on the evolute. The classical four-vertex theorem of geometry states that the curvature function of a simple, closed, smooth plane curve has at least four local extrema (specifically, at least two local maxima and at least two local minima). The name of the theorem derives from the convention of calling an extreme point of the curvature function a vertex. This theorem has many generalizations, including a version for space curves where a vertex is defined as a point of vanishing torsion. Examples An ellipse has exactly four vertices: two local maxima of curvature where it is crossed by the major axis of the ellipse, and two local minima of curvature where it is crossed by the minor axis. In a circle, every point is both a local maximum and a local minimum of curvature, so there are infinitely many vertices. Every curve of constant width has at least six vertices. ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Medial Axis (red), its evolute (blue), and its medial axis (green). The symmetry set, a super-set of the medial axis is the green and yellow curves. One bi-tangent circle is shown. The medial axis of an object is the set of all points having more than one closest point on the object's boundary. Originally referred to as the topological skeleton, it was introduced by Blum''A transformation for extracting new descriptors of shape'' H Blum, Models for the perception of speech and visual form, 196 as a tool for biological shape recognition. In mathematics the closure of the medial axis is known as the cut locus. In 2D, the medial axis of a subset ''S'' which is bounded by planar curve ''C'' is the locus of the centers of circles that are tangent to curve ''C'' in two or more points, where all such circles are contained in ''S''. (It follows that the medial axis itself is contained in ''S''.) The medial axis of a simple polygon is a tree whose leaves are the vertices of the polygon, and whose edg ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Symmetry Set 240px, An ellipse (red), its evolute (blue), and its symmetry set (green and yellow). the medial axis is just the green portion of the symmetry set. One bi-tangent circle is shown. In geometry, the symmetry set is a method for representing the local symmetries of a curve, and can be used as a method for representing the shape of objects by finding the topological skeleton. The medial axis, a subset of the symmetry set is a set of curves which roughly run along the middle of an object. In 2 dimensions Let I \subseteq \mathbb be an open interval, and \gamma : I \to \mathbb^2 be a parametrisation of a smooth plane curve. The symmetry set of \gamma (I) \subset \mathbb^2 is defined to be the closure of the set of centres of circles tangent to the curve at at least two distinct points (bitangent circles). The symmetry set will have endpoints corresponding to vertices of the curve. Such points will lie at cusp of the evolute. At such points the curve will have 4-point contact with ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Cusp (singularity) In mathematics, a cusp, sometimes called spinode in old texts, is a point on a curve where a moving point must reverse direction. A typical example is given in the figure. A cusp is thus a type of singular point of a curve. For a plane curve defined by an analytic, parametric equation :\begin x&=f(t)\\ y&=g(t), \end a cusp is a point where both derivatives of and are zero, and the directional derivative, in the direction of the tangent, changes sign (the direction of the tangent is the direction of the slope \lim (g'(t)/f'(t))). Cusps are ''local singularities'' in the sense that they involve only one value of the parameter , in contrast to self-intersection points that involve more than one value. In some contexts, the condition on the directional derivative may be omitted, although, in this case, the singularity may look like a regular point. For a curve defined by an implicit equation :F(x,y)=0, which is smooth, cusps are points where the terms of lowest degree of the Ta ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Osculating Circle In differential geometry of curves, the osculating circle of a sufficiently smooth plane curve at a given point ''p'' on the curve has been traditionally defined as the circle passing through ''p'' and a pair of additional points on the curve infinitesimally close to ''p''. Its center lies on the inner normal line, and its curvature defines the curvature of the given curve at that point. This circle, which is the one among all tangent circles at the given point that approaches the curve most tightly, was named ''circulus osculans'' (Latin for "kissing circle") by Leibniz. The center and radius of the osculating circle at a given point are called center of curvature and radius of curvature of the curve at that point. A geometric construction was described by Isaac Newton in his ''Principia'': Nontechnical description Imagine a car moving along a curved road on a vast flat plane. Suddenly, at one point along the road, the steering wheel locks in its present position. Thereafter ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Plane Curve In mathematics, a plane curve is a curve in a plane that may be either a Euclidean plane, an affine plane or a projective plane. The most frequently studied cases are smooth plane curves (including piecewise smooth plane curves), and algebraic plane curves. Plane curves also include the Jordan curves (curves that enclose a region of the plane but need not be smooth) and the graphs of continuous functions. Symbolic representation A plane curve can often be represented in Cartesian coordinates by an implicit equation of the form f(x,y)=0 for some specific function ''f''. If this equation can be solved explicitly for ''y'' or ''x'' – that is, rewritten as y=g(x) or x=h(y) for specific function ''g'' or ''h'' – then this provides an alternative, explicit, form of the representation. A plane curve can also often be represented in Cartesian coordinates by a parametric equation of the form (x,y)=(x(t), y(t)) for specific functions x(t) and y(t). Plane curves can sometimes also be repr ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Contact (mathematics) In mathematics, two functions have a contact of order ''k'' if, at a point ''P'', they have the same value and ''k'' equal derivatives. This is an equivalence relation, whose equivalence classes are generally called jets. The point of osculation is also called the double cusp. Contact is a geometric notion; it can be defined algebraically as a valuation. One speaks also of curves and geometric objects having ''k''-th order contact at a point: this is also called ''osculation'' (i.e. kissing), generalising the property of being tangent. (Here the derivatives are considered with respect to arc length.) An osculating curve from a given family of curves is a curve that has the highest possible order of contact with a given curve at a given point; for instance a tangent line is an osculating curve from the family of lines, and has first-order contact with the given curve; an osculating circle is an osculating curve from the family of circles, and has second-order contact (same tangent ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Circle A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a disc. A circle may also be defined as a special kind of ellipse in which the two foci are coincident and the eccentricity is 0, or the two-dimensional shape enclosing the most ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]