Three-phase Commit Protocol
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Three-phase Commit Protocol
In computer networking and databases, the three-phase commit protocol (3PC) is a distributed algorithm which lets all nodes in a distributed system agree to commit a transaction. It is a more failure-resilient refinement of the two-phase commit protocol (2PC). Motivation A two-phase commit protocol cannot dependably recover from a failure of both the coordinator and a cohort member during the Commit phase. If only the coordinator had failed, and no cohort members had received a commit message, it could safely be inferred that no commit had happened. If, however, both the coordinator and a cohort member failed, it is possible that the failed cohort member was the first to be notified, and had actually done the commit. Even if a new coordinator is selected, it cannot confidently proceed with the operation until it has received an agreement from all cohort members, and hence must block until all cohort members respond. The three-phase commit protocol eliminates this problem by in ...
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Computer Networking
A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes. The computers use common communication protocols over digital interconnections to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. The nodes of a computer network can include personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other specialised or general-purpose hosts. They are identified by network addresses, and may have hostnames. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, including the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth, communications pr ...
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Database
In computing, a database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically. Small databases can be stored on a file system, while large databases are hosted on computer clusters or cloud storage. The design of databases spans formal techniques and practical considerations, including data modeling, efficient data representation and storage, query languages, security and privacy of sensitive data, and distributed computing issues, including supporting concurrent access and fault tolerance. A database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a database system. Often the term "database" is also used loosely to refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an app ...
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Distributed Algorithm
A distributed algorithm is an algorithm designed to run on computer hardware constructed from interconnected processors. Distributed algorithms are used in different application areas of distributed computing, such as telecommunications, scientific computing, distributed information processing, and real-time process control. Standard problems solved by distributed algorithms include leader election, consensus, distributed search, spanning tree generation, mutual exclusion, and resource allocation. Distributed algorithms are a sub-type of parallel algorithm, typically executed concurrently, with separate parts of the algorithm being run simultaneously on independent processors, and having limited information about what the other parts of the algorithm are doing. One of the major challenges in developing and implementing distributed algorithms is successfully coordinating the behavior of the independent parts of the algorithm in the face of processor failures and unreliable communic ...
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Distributed System
A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another from any system. Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. The components of a distributed system interact with one another in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant challenges of distributed systems are: maintaining concurrency of components, overcoming the lack of a global clock, and managing the independent failure of components. When a component of one system fails, the entire system does not fail. Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications. A computer program that runs within a distributed system is called a distributed program, and ''distributed programming'' is the process of writing such programs. There are many different types of implementations for t ...
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Commit (data Management)
In computer science and data management, a commit is the making of a set of tentative changes permanent, marking the end of a transaction and providing ''Durability'' to ACID transactions. A ''commit'' is an act of committing. The record of commits is called the commit log. Data management A COMMIT statement in SQL ends a transaction within a relational database management system (RDBMS) and makes all changes visible to other users. The general format is to issue a BEGIN WORK (or BEGIN TRANSACTION, depending on the database vendor) statement, one or more SQL statements, and then the COMMIT statement. Alternatively, a ROLLBACK statement can be issued, which undoes all the work performed since BEGIN WORK was issued. A COMMIT statement will also release any existing savepoints that may be in use. In terms of transactions, the opposite of commit is to discard the tentative changes of a transaction, a rollback. See also * Commit (version control) * Atomic commit * Two-phase c ...
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Database Transaction
A database transaction symbolizes a unit of work, performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, that is treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions. A transaction generally represents any change in a database. Transactions in a database environment have two main purposes: # To provide reliable units of work that allow correct recovery from failures and keep a database consistent even in cases of system failure. For example: when execution prematurely and unexpectedly stops (completely or partially) in which case many operations upon a database remain uncompleted, with unclear status. # To provide isolation between programs accessing a database concurrently. If this isolation is not provided, the programs' outcomes are possibly erroneous. In a database management system, a transaction is a single unit of logic or work, sometimes made up of multiple operations. Any logical calculation done in a consistent mode in ...
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Two-phase Commit Protocol
In transaction processing, databases, and computer networking, the two-phase commit protocol (2PC) is a type of atomic commitment protocol (ACP). It is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed atomic transaction on whether to commit or abort (roll back) the transaction. This protocol (a specialised type of consensus protocol) achieves its goal even in many cases of temporary system failure (involving either process, network node, communication, etc. failures), and is thus widely used. Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman (1987) ''Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems'' Chapter 7, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001) ''Transactional Information Systems'' Chapter 19, Elsevier, Philip A. Bernstein, Eric Newcomer (2009)''Principles of Transaction Processing'', 2nd Edition, Chapter 8, Morgan Kaufmann (Elsevier), However, it is not resilient to all possible fail ...
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Two-phase Commit
In transaction processing, databases, and computer networking, the two-phase commit protocol (2PC) is a type of atomic commitment protocol (ACP). It is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed atomic transaction on whether to commit or abort (roll back) the transaction. This protocol (a specialised type of consensus protocol) achieves its goal even in many cases of temporary system failure (involving either process, network node, communication, etc. failures), and is thus widely used. Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman (1987) ''Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems'' Chapter 7, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001) ''Transactional Information Systems'' Chapter 19, Elsevier, Philip A. Bernstein, Eric Newcomer (2009)''Principles of Transaction Processing'', 2nd Edition, Chapter 8, Morgan Kaufmann (Elsevier), However, it is not resilient to all possible fail ...
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Two-phase Commit Protocol
In transaction processing, databases, and computer networking, the two-phase commit protocol (2PC) is a type of atomic commitment protocol (ACP). It is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed atomic transaction on whether to commit or abort (roll back) the transaction. This protocol (a specialised type of consensus protocol) achieves its goal even in many cases of temporary system failure (involving either process, network node, communication, etc. failures), and is thus widely used. Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman (1987) ''Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems'' Chapter 7, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001) ''Transactional Information Systems'' Chapter 19, Elsevier, Philip A. Bernstein, Eric Newcomer (2009)''Principles of Transaction Processing'', 2nd Edition, Chapter 8, Morgan Kaufmann (Elsevier), However, it is not resilient to all possible fail ...
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