Thomae's Function
Thomae's function is a realvalued function of a real variable that can be defined as: f(x) = \begin \frac &\textx = \tfrac\quad (x \text p \in \mathbb Z \text q \in \mathbb N \text\\ 0 &\textx \text \end It is named after Carl Johannes Thomae, but has many other names: the popcorn function, the raindrop function, the countable cloud function, the modified Dirichlet function, the ruler function, the Riemann function, or the Stars over Babylon (John Horton Conway's name). Thomae mentioned it as an example for an integrable function with infinitely many discontinuities in an early textbook on Riemann's notion of integration. Since every rational number has a unique representation with coprime (also termed relatively prime) p \in \mathbb Z and q \in \mathbb N, the function is welldefined. Note that q = +1 is the only number in \mathbb N that is coprime to p = 0. It is a modification of the Dirichlet function, which is 1 at rational numbers and 0 elsewhere. Propert ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Thomae Function (0,1)
Thomae's function is a real number, realvalued function (mathematics), function of a real variable that can be defined as: f(x) = \begin \frac &\textx = \tfrac\quad (x \text p \in \mathbb Z \text q \in \mathbb N \text\\ 0 &\textx \text \end It is named after Carl Johannes Thomae, but has many other names: the popcorn function, the raindrop function, the countable cloud function, the modified Dirichlet function, the ruler function, the Riemann function, or the Stars over Babylon (John Horton Conway's name). Thomae mentioned it as an example for an integrable function with infinitely many discontinuities in an early textbook on Riemann's notion of integration. Since every rational number has a unique representation with coprime integers, coprime (also termed relatively prime) p \in \mathbb Z and q \in \mathbb N, the function is welldefined. Note that q = +1 is the only number in \mathbb N that is coprime to p = 0. It is a modification of the Dirichlet function, w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Archimedean Property
In abstract algebra and analysis, the Archimedean property, named after the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse, is a property held by some algebraic structures, such as ordered or normed groups, and fields. The property, typically construed, states that given two positive numbers ''x'' and ''y'', there is an integer ''n'' such that ''nx'' > ''y''. It also means that the set of natural numbers is not bounded above. Roughly speaking, it is the property of having no ''infinitely large'' or ''infinitely small'' elements. It was Otto Stolz who gave the axiom of Archimedes its name because it appears as Axiom V of Archimedes’ ''On the Sphere and Cylinder''. The notion arose from the theory of magnitudes of Ancient Greece; it still plays an important role in modern mathematics such as David Hilbert's axioms for geometry, and the theories of ordered groups, ordered fields, and local fields. An algebraic structure in which any two nonzero elements are ''compa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diploid
Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes. Sets of chromosomes refer to the number of maternal and paternal chromosome copies, respectively, in each homologous chromosome pair, which chromosomes naturally exist as. Somatic cells, tissues, and individual organisms can be described according to the number of sets of chromosomes present (the "ploidy level"): monoploid (1 set), diploid (2 sets), triploid (3 sets), tetraploid (4 sets), pentaploid (5 sets), hexaploid (6 sets), heptaploid or septaploid (7 sets), etc. The generic term polyploid is often used to describe cells with three or more chromosome sets. Virtually all sexually reproducing organisms are made up of somatic cells that are diploid or greater, but ploidy level may vary widely between different organisms, between different tissues within the same organism, and at different stages in an organism's life cycle. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

DNA Sequencing
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleic acid sequence – the order of nucleotides in DNA. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, DNA Genographic Projects and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics. Comparing healthy and mutated DNA sequences can diagnose different diseases including various cancers, characterize antibody repertoire, and can be used to guide patient treatment. Having a quick way to sequence DNA allows for faster and more individualized medical care to be administered, and for more organisms to be identified and cataloged. The rapid speed of sequencing attained with modern ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Proceedings Of The American Mathematical Society
''Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society'' is a monthly peerreviewed scientific journal of mathematics published by the American Mathematical Society. As a requirement, all articles must be at most 15 printed pages. According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2018 impact factor of 0.813. Scope ''Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society'' publishes articles from all areas of pure and applied mathematics, including topology, geometry, analysis, algebra, number theory, combinatorics, logic, probability and statistics. Abstracting and indexing This journal is indexed in the following databases: 2011. American Mathematical Society. * 

Minkowski–Bouligand Dimension
450px, Estimating the boxcounting dimension of the coast of Great Britain In fractal geometry, the Minkowski–Bouligand dimension, also known as Minkowski dimension or boxcounting dimension, is a way of determining the fractal dimension of a set ''S'' in a Euclidean space R''n'', or more generally in a metric space (''X'', ''d''). It is named after the Polish mathematician Hermann Minkowski and the French mathematician Georges Bouligand. To calculate this dimension for a fractal ''S'', imagine this fractal lying on an evenly spaced grid and count how many boxes are required to cover the set. The boxcounting dimension is calculated by seeing how this number changes as we make the grid finer by applying a boxcounting algorithm. Suppose that ''N''(''ε'') is the number of boxes of side length ''ε'' required to cover the set. Then the boxcounting dimension is defined as : \dim_\text(S) := \lim_ \frac . Roughly speaking, this means that the dimension is the exponent ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Almost Everywhere
In measure theory (a branch of mathematical analysis), a property holds almost everywhere if, in a technical sense, the set for which the property holds takes up nearly all possibilities. The notion of "almost everywhere" is a companion notion to the concept of measure zero, and is analogous to the notion of ''almost surely'' in probability theory. More specifically, a property holds almost everywhere if it holds for all elements in a set except a subset of measure zero, or equivalently, if the set of elements for which the property holds is conull. In cases where the measure is not complete, it is sufficient that the set be contained within a set of measure zero. When discussing sets of real numbers, the Lebesgue measure is usually assumed unless otherwise stated. The term ''almost everywhere'' is abbreviated ''a.e.''; in older literature ''p.p.'' is used, to stand for the equivalent French language phrase ''presque partout''. A set with full measure is one whose complement i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countability
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Measure
In measure theory, a branch of mathematics, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. For ''n'' = 1, 2, or 3, it coincides with the standard measure of length, area, or volume. In general, it is also called ''n''dimensional volume, ''n''volume, or simply volume. It is used throughout real analysis, in particular to define Lebesgue integration. Sets that can be assigned a Lebesgue measure are called Lebesguemeasurable; the measure of the Lebesguemeasurable set ''A'' is here denoted by ''λ''(''A''). Henri Lebesgue described this measure in the year 1901, followed the next year by his description of the Lebesgue integral. Both were published as part of his dissertation in 1902. Definition For any interval I = ,b/math>, or I = (a, b), in the set \mathbb of real numbers, let \ell(I)= b  a denote its length. For any subset E\subseteq\mathbb, the Lebesgue ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Integrability Condition
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riemann Integrable
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and bet ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Neighborhood (mathematics)
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space. It is closely related to the concepts of open set and interior. Intuitively speaking, a neighbourhood of a point is a set of points containing that point where one can move some amount in any direction away from that point without leaving the set. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point If X is a topological space and p is a point in X, then a of p is a subset V of X that includes an open set U containing p, p \in U \subseteq V \subseteq X. This is also equivalent to the point p \in X belonging to the topological interior of V in X. The neighbourhood V need be an open subset X, but when V is open in X then it is called an . Some authors have been known to require neighbourhoods to be open, so it is important to note conventions. A set that is a neighbourhood of each of its points is open since it can be expressed as the union of open sets ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 