Tensor Product Of Modules
In mathematics, the tensor product of modules is a construction that allows arguments about bilinear maps (e.g. multiplication) to be carried out in terms of linear maps. The module construction is analogous to the construction of the tensor product of vector spaces, but can be carried out for a pair of modules over a commutative ring resulting in a third module, and also for a pair of a rightmodule and a leftmodule over any ring, with result an abelian group. Tensor products are important in areas of abstract algebra, homological algebra, algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, operator algebras and noncommutative geometry. The universal property of the tensor product of vector spaces extends to more general situations in abstract algebra. It allows the study of bilinear or multilinear operations via linear operations. The tensor product of an algebra and a module can be used for extension of scalars. For a commutative ring, the tensor product of modules can be iterated to form ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Extension Of Scalars
In algebra, given a ring homomorphism f: R \to S, there are three ways to change the coefficient ring of a module; namely, for a left ''R''module ''M'' and a left ''S''module ''N'', *f_! M = S\otimes_R M, the induced module. *f_* M = \operatorname_R(S, M), the coinduced module. *f^* N = N_R, the restriction of scalars. They are related as adjoint functors: :f_! : \text_R \leftrightarrows \text_S : f^* and :f^* : \text_S \leftrightarrows \text_R : f_*. This is related to Shapiro's lemma. Operations Restriction of scalars Throughout this section, let R and S be two rings (they may or may not be commutative, or contain an identity), and let f:R \to S be a homomorphism. Restriction of scalars changes ''S''modules into ''R''modules. In algebraic geometry, the term "restriction of scalars" is often used as a synonym for Weil restriction. Definition Suppose that M is a module over S. Then it can be regarded as a module over R where the action of R is given via : \begin M\ti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Representable Functor
In mathematics, particularly category theory, a representable functor is a certain functor from an arbitrary category into the category of sets. Such functors give representations of an abstract category in terms of known structures (i.e. sets and functions) allowing one to utilize, as much as possible, knowledge about the category of sets in other settings. From another point of view, representable functors for a category ''C'' are the functors ''given'' with ''C''. Their theory is a vast generalisation of upper sets in posets, and of Cayley's theorem in group theory. Definition Let C be a locally small category and let Set be the category of sets. For each object ''A'' of C let Hom(''A'',–) be the hom functor that maps object ''X'' to the set Hom(''A'',''X''). A functor ''F'' : C → Set is said to be representable if it is naturally isomorphic to Hom(''A'',–) for some object ''A'' of C. A representation of ''F'' is a pair (''A'', Φ) where :Φ : Hom(''A'',&ndash ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Up To
Two Mathematical object, mathematical objects ''a'' and ''b'' are called equal up to an equivalence relation ''R'' * if ''a'' and ''b'' are related by ''R'', that is, * if ''aRb'' holds, that is, * if the equivalence classes of ''a'' and ''b'' with respect to ''R'' are equal. This figure of speech is mostly used in connection with expressions derived from equality, such as uniqueness or count. For example, ''x'' is unique up to ''R'' means that all objects ''x'' under consideration are in the same equivalence class with respect to the relation ''R''. Moreover, the equivalence relation ''R'' is often designated rather implicitly by a generating condition or transformation. For example, the statement "an integer's prime factorization is unique up to ordering" is a concise way to say that any two lists of prime factors of a given integer are equivalent with respect to the relation ''R'' that relates two lists if one can be obtained by reordering (permutation) from the other. As anot ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Property
In mathematics, more specifically in category theory, a universal property is a property that characterizes up to an isomorphism the result of some constructions. Thus, universal properties can be used for defining some objects independently from the method chosen for constructing them. For example, the definitions of the integers from the natural numbers, of the rational numbers from the integers, of the real numbers from the rational numbers, and of polynomial rings from the field of their coefficients can all be done in terms of universal properties. In particular, the concept of universal property allows a simple proof that all constructions of real numbers are equivalent: it suffices to prove that they satisfy the same universal property. Technically, a universal property is defined in terms of categories and functors by mean of a universal morphism (see , below). Universal morphisms can also be thought more abstractly as initial or terminal objects of a comma category ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tensor Product Of Modules2
In mathematics, a tensor is an algebraic object that describes a multilinear relationship between sets of algebraic objects related to a vector space. Tensors may map between different objects such as vectors, scalars, and even other tensors. There are many types of tensors, including scalars and vectors (which are the simplest tensors), dual vectors, multilinear maps between vector spaces, and even some operations such as the dot product. Tensors are defined independent of any basis, although they are often referred to by their components in a basis related to a particular coordinate system. Tensors have become important in physics because they provide a concise mathematical framework for formulating and solving physics problems in areas such as mechanics ( stress, elasticity, fluid mechanics, moment of inertia, ...), electrodynamics ( electromagnetic tensor, Maxwell tensor, permittivity, magnetic susceptibility, ...), general relativity (stress–energy tenso ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bimodule
In abstract algebra, a bimodule is an abelian group that is both a left and a right module, such that the left and right multiplications are compatible. Besides appearing naturally in many parts of mathematics, bimodules play a clarifying role, in the sense that many of the relationships between left and right modules become simpler when they are expressed in terms of bimodules. Definition If ''R'' and ''S'' are two rings, then an ''R''''S''bimodule is an abelian group (M,+) such that: # ''M'' is a left ''R''module and a right ''S''module. # For all ''r'' in ''R'', ''s'' in ''S'' and ''m'' in ''M'': (r.m).s = r.(m.s) . An ''R''''R''bimodule is also known as an ''R''bimodule. Examples * For positive integers ''n'' and ''m'', the set ''M''''n'',''m''(R) of matrices of real numbers is an ''R''''S''bimodule, where ''R'' is the ring ''M''''n''(R) of matrices, and ''S'' is the ring ''M''''m''(R) of matrices. Addition and multiplication are carried out using the usual rul ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associative Property
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any real ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distributive Property
In mathematics, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law, which asserts that the equality x \cdot (y + z) = x \cdot y + x \cdot z is always true in elementary algebra. For example, in elementary arithmetic, one has 2 \cdot (1 + 3) = (2 \cdot 1) + (2 \cdot 3). One says that multiplication ''distributes'' over addition. This basic property of numbers is part of the definition of most algebraic structures that have two operations called addition and multiplication, such as complex numbers, polynomials, Matrix (mathematics), matrices, Ring (mathematics), rings, and Field (mathematics), fields. It is also encountered in Boolean algebra and mathematical logic, where each of the logical and (denoted \,\land\,) and the logical or (denoted \,\lor\,) distributes over the other. Definition Given a Set (mathematics), set S and two binary operators \,*\, and \,+\, on S, *the operation \,*\, is over (or with respect to) \,+\, if, given any elements x ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Additive Map
In algebra, an additive map, Zlinear map or additive function is a function f that preserves the addition operation: f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) for every pair of elements x and y in the domain of f. For example, any linear map is additive. When the domain is the real numbers, this is Cauchy's functional equation. For a specific case of this definition, see additive polynomial. More formally, an additive map is a \Zmodule homomorphism. Since an abelian group is a \Zmodule, it may be defined as a group homomorphism between abelian groups. A map V \times W \to X that is additive in each of two arguments separately is called a biadditive map or a \Zbilinear map. Examples Typical examples include maps between rings, vector spaces, or modules that preserve the additive group. An additive map does not necessarily preserve any other structure of the object; for example, the product operation of a ring. If f and g are additive maps, then the map f + g (defined pointwise) is additiv ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Abelian Groups
In mathematics, the category Ab has the abelian groups as objects and group homomorphisms as morphisms. This is the prototype of an abelian category: indeed, every small abelian category can be embedded in Ab. Properties The zero object of Ab is the trivial group which consists only of its neutral element. The monomorphisms in Ab are the injective group homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are the surjective group homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are the bijective group homomorphisms. Ab is a full subcategory of Grp, the category of ''all'' groups. The main difference between Ab and Grp is that the sum of two homomorphisms ''f'' and ''g'' between abelian groups is again a group homomorphism: :(''f''+''g'')(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x''+''y'') + ''g''(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''g''(''y'') : = ''f''(''x'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''y'') = (''f''+''g'')(''x'') + (''f''+''g'')(''y'') The third e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Functor
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a functor is a Map (mathematics), mapping between Category (mathematics), categories. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects (such as the fundamental group) are associated to topological spaces, and maps between these algebraic objects are associated to continuous function, continuous maps between spaces. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. Thus, functors are important in all areas within mathematics to which category theory is applied. The words ''category'' and ''functor'' were borrowed by mathematicians from the philosophers Aristotle and Rudolf Carnap, respectively. The latter used ''functor'' in a Linguistics, linguistic context; see function word. Definition Let ''C'' and ''D'' be category (mathematics), categories. A functor ''F'' from ''C'' to ''D'' is a mapping that * associates each object X in ''C'' to an object F(X) in ''D' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 