Tangible Common Equity
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Tangible Common Equity
Tangible common equity (TCE), the subset of shareholders' equity that is not preferred equity and not intangible assets, is an uncommonly used measure of a company's financial strength. It indicates how much ownership equity owners of common stock would receive in the event of a company's liquidation. During the financial and economic crisis of 2008–2009, it gained public popularity as a measure of the viability of large commercial banks. When used in a ratio with tangible common assets, it measures a bank's ability to absorb losses (e.g., homeowners defaulting on mortgages) before becoming insolvent. It is one of the factors considered by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency to determine if a bank has become insolvent. Formula *''TCE = total equity – intangible assets – goodwill – preferred stock'' *''TCE ratio = TCE / (total assets)'' *''Leverage ratio = (total assets – intangible assets – goodwill) / TCE'' Example On February 27, 2009, the U.S. Governmen ...
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Shareholders' Equity
In finance, equity is ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. Equity is measured for accounting purposes by subtracting liabilities from the value of the assets. For example, if someone owns a car worth $24,000 and owes $10,000 on the loan used to buy the car, the difference of $14,000 is equity. Equity can apply to a single asset, such as a car or house, or to an entire business. A business that needs to start up or expand its operations can sell its equity in order to raise cash that does not have to be repaid on a set schedule. In government finance or other non-profit settings, equity is known as "net position" or "net assets". Origins The term "equity" describes this type of ownership in English because it was regulated through the system of equity law that developed in England during the Late Middle Ages to meet the growing demands of commercial activity. While the older common law courts dealt with questions of property title, equ ...
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Office Of The Comptroller Of The Currency
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is an independent bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury that was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and thrift institutions and the federally licensed branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States. The acting Comptroller of the Currency is Michael J. Hsu, who took office on May 10, 2021. Duties and functions Headquartered in Washington, D.C., it has four district offices located in New York City, Chicago, Dallas and Denver. It has an additional 92 operating locations throughout the United States. It is an independent bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury and is headed by the Comptroller of the Currency, appointed to a five-year term by the President with the consent of the Senate. The OCC pursues a number of main objectives: * to ensure the safety and soundness of the national banking system; ...
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Return On Tangible Equity
Return on tangible equity (ROTE) (also return on average tangible common shareholders' equity (ROTCE)) measures the rate of return on the tangible common equity. ROTE is computed by dividing net earnings (or annualized net earnings for annualized ROTE) applicable to common shareholders by average monthly tangible common shareholders' equity. Tangible common shareholders' equity equals total shareholders' equity less preferred stock, goodwill, and identifiable intangible asset An intangible asset is an asset that lacks physical substance. Examples are patents, copyright, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, and trade names, as well as software. This is in contrast to physical assets (machinery, buildings, etc.) and fin ...s. References {{Financial ratios Financial ratios ...
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Bank Stress Tests
A stress test, in financial terminology, is an analysis or simulation designed to determine the ability of a given financial instrument or financial institution to deal with an economic crisis. Instead of doing financial projection on a "best estimate" basis, a company or its regulators may do stress testing where they look at how robust a financial instrument is in certain crashes, a form of scenario analysis. They may test the instrument under, for example, the following stresses: * What happens if unemployment rate rises to v% in a specific year? * What happens if equity markets crash by more than w% this year? * What happens if GDP falls by x% in a given year? * What happens if interest rates go up by at least y%? * What if half the instruments in the portfolio terminate their contracts in the fifth year? * What happens if oil prices rise by z%? * What happens if there is a polar vortex event in a particular region? This type of analysis has become increasingly widespread, an ...
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Wall Street Journal
''The Wall Street Journal'' is an American business-focused, international daily newspaper based in New York City, with international editions also available in Chinese and Japanese. The ''Journal'', along with its Asian editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp. The newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The ''Journal'' has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser. The ''Journal'' is regarded as a newspaper of record, particularly in terms of business and financial news. The newspaper has won 38 Pulitzer Prizes, the most recent in 2019. ''The Wall Street Journal'' is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.834million copies (including nearly 1,829,000 digital sales) compared with ''USA Today''s 1.7million. The ''Journal'' publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazin ...
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Citigroup
Citigroup Inc. or Citi ( stylized as citi) is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City. The company was formed by the merger of banking giant Citicorp and financial conglomerate Travelers Group in 1998; Travelers was subsequently spun off from the company in 2002. Citigroup owns Citicorp, the holding company for Citibank, as well as several international subsidiaries. Citigroup is incorporated in Delaware. Citigroup is the third largest banking institution in the United States; alongside JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Wells Fargo, it is one of the Big Four banking institutions of the United States. It is considered a systemically important bank by the Financial Stability Board and is commonly cited as being too big to fail. It is one of the nine global investment banks in the Bulge Bracket. Citigroup is ranked 33rd on the ''Fortune'' 500 as of 2021. Citigroup has approximately 200 million customer ...
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Common Shares
Common stock is a form of corporate equity ownership, a type of security. The terms voting share and ordinary share are also used frequently outside of the United States. They are known as equity shares or ordinary shares in the UK and other Commonwealth realms. This type of share gives the stockholder the right to share in the profits of the company, and to vote on matters of corporate policy and the composition of the members of the board of directors. The owners of common stock do not own any particular assets of the company, which belong to all the shareholders in common. A corporation may issue both ordinary and preference shares, in which case the preference shareholders have priority to receive dividends. In the event of liquidation, ordinary shareholders receive any remaining funds after bondholders, creditors (including employees), and preference shareholders are paid. When the liquidation happens through bankruptcy, the ordinary shareholders typically receive nothi ...
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Preferred Shares
Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares, or simply preferreds) is a component of share capital that may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock, including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument. Preferred stocks are senior (i.e., higher ranking) to common stock but subordinate to bonds in terms of claim (or rights to their share of the assets of the company, given that such assets are payable to the returnee stock bond) and may have priority over common stock (ordinary shares) in the payment of dividends and upon liquidation. Terms of the preferred stock are described in the issuing company's articles of association or articles of incorporation. Like bonds, preferred stocks are rated by major credit rating agencies. Their ratings are generally lower than those of bonds, because preferred dividends do not carry the same guarantees as interest payments from bonds, and beca ...
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Federal Government Of The United States
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States, a federal republic located primarily in North America, composed of 50 states, a city within a federal district (the city of Washington in the District of Columbia, where most of the federal government is based), five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government, sometimes simply referred to as Washington, is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. Naming The full name of the republic is "United States of America". No other name appears in the Constitution, and t ...
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Mortgage Repossession
In the United Kingdom, a lender can take possession of a person's home due to default on a mortgage. This process is incorrectly often known as "mortgage repossession"; however, assets can only be repossessed if the lender was the seller, which is often the case with cars but not usually with houses. The correct terminology is "possession". The process typically involves obtaining firstly an order for possession in the courts, then an eviction warrant. The eviction is carried out by bailiffs. Once the lender has obtained possession, it can then sell the home to recoup any lost arrears. Mortgage possession involves legal proceedings in which a mortgagee or other lienholder, usually a lender, obtains a court order for possession of a property, prior to exercising the mortgagor's equitable right of redemption. Usually a lender obtains a security interest In finance, a security interest is a legal right granted by a debtor to a creditor over the debtor's property (usually referre ...
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Preferred Equity
Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares, or simply preferreds) is a component of share capital that may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock, including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument. Preferred stocks are senior (i.e., higher ranking) to common stock but subordinate to bonds in terms of claim (or rights to their share of the assets of the company, given that such assets are payable to the returnee stock bond) and may have priority over common stock (ordinary shares) in the payment of dividends and upon liquidation. Terms of the preferred stock are described in the issuing company's articles of association or articles of incorporation. Like bonds, preferred stocks are rated by major credit rating agencies. Their ratings are generally lower than those of bonds, because preferred dividends do not carry the same guarantees as interest payments from bonds, and beca ...
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Commercial Banks
A commercial bank is a financial institution which accepts deposits from the public and gives loans for the purposes of consumption and investment to make profit. It can also refer to a bank, or a division of a large bank, which deals with corporations or a large/middle-sized business to differentiate it from a retail bank and an investment bank. Commercial banks include private sector banks and public sector banks. History The name ''bank'' derives from the Italian word ''banco'' "desk/bench", used during the Italian Renaissance era by Florentine bankers, who used to carry out their transactions on a desk covered by a green tablecloth. However, traces of banking activity can be found even in ancient times. In the United States, the term commercial bank was often used to distinguish it from an investment bank due to differences in bank regulation. After the Great Depression, through the Glass–Steagall Act, the U.S. Congress required that commercial banks only engage in ba ...
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