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Trs-80
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores. The name is an abbreviation of ''Tandy Radio Shack, Z80 [microprocessor]''. It is one of the earliest mass-produced and mass-marketed retail home computers. The TRS-80 has a full-stroke QWERTY keyboard, the Zilog Z80 processor, 4 kilobyte, KB dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) standard memory, small size and desk area, floating-point Level I BASIC language Interpreter (computing), interpreter in read-only memory (ROM), 64-character per line computer monitor, video monitor, and a starting price of US$600 (equivalent to US$ in ). A cassette tape drive for program storage was included in the original package. While the software environment was stable, the cassette load/save process combined with keyboard bounce issues and a troublesome Expansion Interface contributed to the ...
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TRSDOS
TRSDOS (which stands for the Tandy Radio Shack Disk Operating System) is the operating system for the Tandy TRS-80 line of eight-bit Zilog Z80 microcomputers that were sold through Radio Shack from 1977 through 1991. Tandy's manuals recommended that it be pronounced ''triss-doss''. TRSDOS should not be confused with Tandy DOS, a version of MS-DOS licensed from Microsoft for Tandy's x86 line of personal computers (PCs). With the original TRS-80 Model I of 1977, TRSDOS was primarily a way of extending the MBASIC (BASIC in read-only memory, ROM) with additional I/O (input/output) commands that worked with disk files rather than the cassette tapes that were used by non-disk Model I systems. Later disk-equipped TRS-80 Model III, Model III computers used a completely different version of TRSDOS by Radio Shack which culminated in 1981 with TRSDOS Version 1.3. From 1983 disk-equipped TRS-80 Model 4 computers used TRSDOS Version 6, which was a development of Model III LDOS by Logical Systems ...
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LDOS (operating System)
TRSDOS (which stands for the Tandy Radio Shack Disk Operating System) is the operating system for the Tandy TRS-80 line of eight-bit Zilog Z80 microcomputers that were sold through Radio Shack from 1977 through 1991. Tandy's manuals recommended that it be pronounced ''triss-doss''. TRSDOS should not be confused with Tandy DOS, a version of MS-DOS licensed from Microsoft for Tandy's x86 line of personal computers (PCs). With the original TRS-80 Model I of 1977, TRSDOS was primarily a way of extending the MBASIC (BASIC in read-only memory, ROM) with additional I/O (input/output) commands that worked with disk files rather than the cassette tapes that were used by non-disk Model I systems. Later disk-equipped TRS-80 Model III, Model III computers used a completely different version of TRSDOS by Radio Shack which culminated in 1981 with TRSDOS Version 1.3. From 1983 disk-equipped TRS-80 Model 4 computers used TRSDOS Version 6, which was a development of Model III LDOS by Logical Systems ...
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Level I BASIC
Level I BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language that shipped with the first TRS-80, the TRS-80 Model I. Background Tandy-employee Steve Leininger had written the first draft of the Tiny BASIC, NIBL (National Industrial Basic Language) BASIC interpreter for the SC/MP while employed at National Semiconductor . Unable to take that source code with him, he initially hired a consultant to write an interpreter (computing), interpreter. When that contractor failed to deliver, he adapted Li-Chen Wang's public domain version of Tiny BASIC for the original prototype of the TRS-80 Model I. This required only 2 KB of memory for the interpreter (computing), interpreter, leaving an average of another 2 KB free for user programs in common 4 KB memory layouts of early machines. During a demonstration to executives, Tandy Corporation's then-President Charles Tandy tried to enter his salary but was unable to do so. This was because Tiny BASIC used Integer (computer scien ...
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TRS-80 Model 4
The TRS-80 Model 4 is the last Z80-based home computer family by Radio Shack, sold from April 1983 through late 1991. Model 4 Tandy Corporation introduced the TRS-80 Model 4 in April 26th, 1983 as the successor to the TRS-80 Model III. The Model 4 has a faster Z80A 4 MHz CPU, larger video display of 80 columns by 24 rows, bigger keyboard, and can be upgraded to 128KB of RAM. It is compatible with Model III software and CP/M application software. The Model 4 was announced in the same April 1983 press release as was the TRS-80 Model 100 laptop. The two computers were often marketed by Tandy/Radio Shack as a complementary pair. A diskless Model 4 with 16KB RAM cost $999; with 64KB RAM and one single-sided 180K disk drive it cost $1699; with 64KB RAM and two drives it cost $1999. An upgrade for Model III owners cost $799 and provided a new motherboard and keyboard. The Model 4's first appearance in the Radio Shack catalog stated: "Yes, it looks like a Model III, but it ...
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TRS-80 Pocket Computer
The Tandy Pocket Computer or TRS-80 Pocket Computer is one of a line of 1980s small pocket computers—calculator-sized programmable computing devices—sold by Tandy Corporation under the "''Tandy''" or "''Radio Shack TRS-80''" brands. Although named after the TRS-80 line of computers, they were not compatible with it and did not use the Zilog Z80, Z-80 CPU. Computers in the line were actually Badge engineering, rebadged Sharp Corporation, Sharp and Casio devices with different model names. They were given designations from PC-1 to PC-8. The PC-1, PC-2, PC-3 and PC-8 are Sharp devices, while the PC-4, PC-5, PC-6 and PC-7 were designed by Casio. History, lineage and nomenclature Although not branded as such, the original TRS-80 Pocket Computer PC-1, TRS-80 Pocket Computer later became known as the PC-1, as subsequent models were labelled PC-2 through PC-8. Some were made by Sharp, and the rest by Casio (PC-4 through PC-7). The PC-2 had four colored ballpoint pen, ball p ...
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Semigraphics
Text-based semigraphics or pseudographics is a primitive method used in early text mode video hardware to emulate raster graphics without having to implement the logic for such a display mode. There are two different ways to accomplish the emulation of raster graphics. The first one is to create a low-resolution Dot matrix#All points addressable, all points addressable mode using a set of special character (computing), characters with all binary combinations of a certain subdivision matrix of the text mode character size; this method is referred to as block graphics, or sometimes mosaic graphics. The second one is to use special shapes instead of glyphs (letters and figures) that appear as if drawn in raster graphics mode, sometimes referred to as semi- or pseudo-graphics; an important example of this is box-drawing characters. Semigraphical characters (including some block elements) are still incorporated into the video BIOS, BIOS of any VGA compatible video card, so any PC c ...
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Radio Shack
RadioShack, formerly RadioShack Corporation, is an American retailer founded in 1921. At its peak in 1999, RadioShack operated over 8,000 worldwide stores named RadioShack or Tandy Electronics in the United States, Mexico, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Outside of those territories, the company licensed other companies to use the RadioShack brand name in parts of Asia, North Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. In February 2015, RadioShack Corporation filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy law after 11 consecutive quarterly losses. By then, it was operating only in the United States and Latin America. In May 2015, General Wireless Inc., an affiliate of Standard General, bought the company's assets, including the RadioShack brand name and related intellectual property, for US$26.2 million. General Wireless Operations Inc. was formed to operate the RadioShack stores, and General Wireless IP Holdings LLC was formed to hold the intellectu ...
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TRS-80 Model 100
The TRS-80 Model 100 is a portable computer introduced in April 26th, 1983. It is one of the first notebook-style computers, featuring a keyboard and liquid crystal display, in a battery-powered package roughly the size and shape of a notepad or large book. It was made by Kyocera, and originally sold in Japan as the Kyotronic 85. Although a slow seller for Kyocera, the rights to the machine were purchased by Tandy Corporation. The computer was sold through Radio Shack stores in the United States and Canada and affiliated dealers in other countries. It became one of the company's most popular models, with over 6 million units sold worldwide. The Olivetti M-10 and the NEC PC-8201 and PC-8300 were also built on the same Kyocera platform, with some design and hardware differences. It was originally marketed as a ''Micro Executive Work Station'' (MEWS), although the term did not catch on and was eventually dropped. Specifications * Processor: 8-bit Oki Electric Industry, Oki Inte ...
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Tandy 2000
The Tandy 2000 is a personal computer introduced by Radio Shack in September 1983 based on the 8 MHz Intel 80186 microprocessor running MS-DOS. By comparison, the IBM Personal Computer XT, IBM PC XT (introduced in March 1983) used the older 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 processor, and the IBM Personal Computer/AT, IBM PC/AT (introduced in 1984) would later use the newer 6 MHz Intel 80286. Due to the 16-bit-wide data bus and more efficient instruction decoding of the 80186, the Tandy 2000 ran significantly faster than other PC compatibles, and slightly faster than the PC AT. (Later IBM upgraded the 80286 in new PC AT models to 8 MHz, though with wait states.) The Tandy 2000 was the company's first computer built around an Intel x86 series microprocessor; previous models used the Zilog Z80 and Motorola 6809 CPUs. While touted as being compatible with the IBM Personal Computer XT, IBM XT, the Tandy 2000 was different enough that most existing PC software that was not purely ...
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Tandy Corporation
Tandy Corporation was an American family-owned leather goods company based in Fort Worth, Texas, United States. Tandy Leather was founded in 1919 as a leather supply store. By the end of the 1950s, under the tutelage of then-CEO Charles Tandy, the company expanded into the hobby market, making leather moccasins and coin purses, making huge sales among Scouts, leading to a fast growth in sales. Entering the 1960s, aiming to broaden the company horizon, Charles Tandy acquired a number of craft retail companies, including RadioShack in 1963, then an almost bankrupt chain of electronics stores in Boston. In the 1980s, now led by John Roach (executive), John Roach as CEO, the corporation started to invest into the personal computer market, being one of the pioneers in the personal computer race, being lauded by the magazine ''Financial World'' as "the driving force at the front-running company in the red-hot personal computer race." In 2000, the Tandy Corporation name was dropped a ...
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NewDos/80
NewDos/80 is a third-party operating system for the RadioShack, Radio Shack TRS-80 line of microcomputers released in 1980. NewDos/80 was developed by Apparat, Inc. of Denver, Colorado. NewDos/80 version 2.0 was released in August 1981. It ran on the TRS-80 Model I and Model III. Overview The operating system had additional command (computing), commands and features that were not available in TRSDOS, the native operating system for TRS-80 computers. NewDos/80 allowed TRS-80 computers to take advantage of advances in floppy disk storage that went beyond the initial 87.5KB 35-track, single-density, single-sided format.System 80 Archive Site - NewDos/80, version 2.0 and the JV1 Disk Image format
classic-computers.org.nz
The syst ...
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Microcomputer
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer having a central processing unit (CPU) made out of a microprocessor. The computer also includes Computer memory, memory and input/output (I/O) circuitry together mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB). Microcomputers became popular in the 1970s and 1980s with the advent of increasingly powerful microprocessors. The predecessors to these computers, mainframe computer, mainframes and minicomputers, were comparatively much larger and more expensive (though indeed present-day mainframes such as the IBM System z machines use one or more custom microprocessors as their CPUs). Many microcomputers (when equipped with a Computer keyboard, keyboard and Computer monitor, screen for input and output) are also personal computers (in the generic sense). An early use of the term ''personal computer'' in 1962 predates microprocessor-based designs. ''(See "Personal Computer: Computers at Companies" reference below)''. A ''microcomput ...
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