Standard (1911 Automobile)
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Standard (1911 Automobile)
The Standard was a German automobile manufactured between 1911 and 1912. The car was produced at Berlin-Charlottenburg using a rotary valve engine built by Henriod, which was unreliable and had not been fully developed; consequently, it was very unpopular. References

*David Burgess Wise, ''The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles''. Defunct motor vehicle manufacturers of Germany {{brass-auto-stub ...
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Automobile
A car or automobile is a motor vehicle with Wheel, wheels. Most definitions of ''cars'' say that they run primarily on roads, Car seat, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport private transport#Personal transport, people instead of cargo, goods. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the car, when German inventor Carl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became widely available during the 20th century. One of the first cars affordable by the masses was the 1908 Ford Model T, Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced Draft animal, animal-drawn carriages and carts. In Europe and other parts of the world, demand for automobiles did not increase until after World War II. The car is considered an essential part of the Developed country, developed economy. Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort, and a variety of lights. Over the decades, a ...
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Berlin
Berlin ( , ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituent states, Berlin is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area, which has a population of around 4.5 million, is the second most populous urban area in Germany after the Ruhr. The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has around 6.2 million inhabitants and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the Spree, which flows into the Havel (a tributary of the Elbe) in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree, Havel and Dahme, the largest of which is Lake Müggelsee. Due to its l ...
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Charlottenburg
Charlottenburg () is a Boroughs and localities of Berlin, locality of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. Established as a German town law, town in 1705 and named after Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, Queen consort of Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia, it is best known for Charlottenburg Palace, the largest surviving royal palace in Berlin, and the adjacent museums. Charlottenburg was an independent city to the west of Berlin until 1920 when it was incorporated into "Greater Berlin Act, Groß-Berlin" (Greater Berlin) and transformed into a borough. In the course of Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it was merged with the former borough of Wilmersdorf becoming a part of a new borough called Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. Later, in 2004, the new borough's districts were rearranged, dividing the former borough of Charlottenburg into the localities of Charlottenburg proper, Westend (Berlin), Westend and Charlottenburg-Nord. Geography Charlottenburg is located in Berlin ...
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Rotary Valve
A rotary valve (also called rotary-motion valve) is a type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes. The common stopcock is the simplest form of rotary valve. Rotary valves have been applied in numerous applications, including: * Changing the pitch of brass instruments. * Controlling the steam and exhaust ports of steam engines, most notably in the Corliss steam engine. * Periodically reversing the flow of air and fuel across the open hearth furnace. * Loading sample on chromatography columns. * Certain types of two-stroke and four-stroke engines. * Most hydraulic automotive power steering control valves. Use in brass instruments In the context of brass instruments, rotary valves are found on horns, trumpets, trombones, flugelhorns, and tubas. The cornet derived from the posthorn, by applying rotary valves to it in the 1820s in France. An alternative to a rotary valve trumpet wou ...
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Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one or more forms of energy into mechanical energy. Available energy sources include potential energy (e.g. energy of the Earth's gravitational field as exploited in hydroelectric power generation), heat energy (e.g. geothermal), chemical energy, electric potential and nuclear energy (from nuclear fission or nuclear fusion). Many of these processes generate heat as an intermediate energy form, so heat engines have special importance. Some natural processes, such as atmospheric convection cells convert environmental heat into motion (e.g. in the form of rising air currents). Mechanical energy is of particular importance in transportation, but also plays a role in many industrial processes such as cutting, grinding, crushing, and mixing. Mechanical heat engines convert heat into work via various thermodynamic processes. The internal combustion engine is perhaps the most common example of a mechanical heat engine, in which he ...
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Henriod
C.E.Henriod & Cie and Automobiles Henriod & Cie (founded 1898) of Neuilly-sur-Seine, France were enterprises of pioneering Swiss automotive engineer, Charles-Edouard Henriod born Fleurier, Switzerland 22 May 1866 died Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Crissier, Cugy, Écublens, Épalinges, Évian-les-Bains (FR-74), Froideville, Jouxtens-Mézery, Le Mont-sur-Lausanne, Lugrin (FR-74), ... 18 November 1941 and his brother Fritz.Froidevaux, Yves. ''Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse''. Schwabe, 2014. Henriod patented numerous inventions such as a gearbox on the back axle and front wheel drive. His inventions were made by automotive manufacturers in France and U.S.A. References {{Reflist Automotive companies of France Vehicle manufacturing companies established in 1898 1898 establishments in France ...
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