Scales In Meteorology
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Scales In Meteorology
Scale or scales may refer to: Mathematics * Scale (descriptive set theory), an object defined on a set of points * Scale (ratio), the ratio of a linear dimension of a model to the corresponding dimension of the original * Scale factor, a number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity * Long and short scales, how powers of ten are named and grouped in large numbers * Scale parameter, a description of the spread or dispersion of a probability distribution * Feature scaling, a method used to normalize the range of independent variables or features of data * Scale (analytical tool) Measurements * Scale (map), the ratio of the distance on a map to the corresponding actual distance * Weighing scale, an instrument used to measure mass * Scale (ratio), the ratio of the linear dimension of the model to the same dimension of the original * Spatial scale, a classification of sizes * Scale ruler, a tool for measuring lengths and transferring measurements at a fixed ratio of length * Verni ...
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Scale (descriptive Set Theory)
In the mathematical discipline of descriptive set theory, a scale is a certain kind of object defined on a set (mathematics), set of point (mathematics), points in some Polish space (for example, a scale might be defined on a set of real numbers). Scales were originally isolated as a concept in the theory of uniformization (descriptive set theory), uniformization, but have found wide applicability in descriptive set theory, with applications such as establishing bounds on the possible lengths of wellorderings of a given complexity, and showing (under certain assumptions) that there are largest countable sets of certain complexities. Formal definition Given a pointset ''A'' contained in some product space :A\subseteq X=X_0\times X_1\times\ldots X_ where each ''Xk'' is either the Baire space (set theory), Baire space or a countably infinite discrete set, we say that a ''norm'' on ''A'' is a map from ''A'' into the ordinal numbers. Each norm has an associated prewellordering, where on ...
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Scale (anatomy)
In most biological nomenclature, a scale ( grc, λεπίς, lepís; la, squāma) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection. In lepidopteran (butterfly and moth) species, scales are plates on the surface of the insect wing, and provide coloration. Scales are quite common and have evolved multiple times through convergent evolution, with varying structure and function. Scales are generally classified as part of an organism's integumentary system. There are various types of scales according to shape and to class of animal. Fish scales File:Ganoid scales.png, Ganoid scales on a carboniferous fish ''Amblypterus striatus'' File:Denticules cutanés du requin citron Negaprion brevirostris vus au microscope électronique à balayage.jpg, Placoid scales on a lemon shark (''Negaprion brevirostris'') File:RutilusRutilusScalesLateralLine.JPG, Cycloid scales on a common roach (''Rutilus rutilus'') Fish scales are dermally derived, specifically i ...
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Scales, Near Kirkoswald
Kirkoswald is a village, civil parish, and former market town located in the Lower Eden Valley of Cumbria, England, formerly in Cumberland, about from Penrith. The village, referred to colloquially as KO, had a population of 870 at the 2001 census, which rose to 901 at the 2011 Census. Heritage The village name means "Church of St Oswald", the parish church being dedicated to Saint Oswald, King of Northumbria. The body of Oswald is believed to have been taken through the village. The church lies on the southern edge of the village overlooking the River Eden, close to the bridge connecting Kirkoswald to Lazonby. St Oswald's Church is unique in having a 19th-century bell tower on top of a hill 200 yards from the church itself. Parts of the church date from the 12th century, the chancel being added in 1523, when the "College" was founded by Thomas Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre and his wife. A sacred spring lies under the nave of the church, and a well is found on the west wall.
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Scales, Lancashire
Newton-with-Scales is a village in the county of Lancashire and in the Borough of Fylde. It is situated on the A583 road, from Preston and from Blackpool, in the civil parish of Newton-with-Clifton. It has a park situated on School Lane, a restaurant / pub called the Bell and Bottle, a primary school called Newton Bluecoats, a shop called The convenience store which also has a Post Office. On the main road out of the village you will also find a Petrol Station and an Indian Restaurant called Ali Raj. Formerly the village was two hamlets: Scales on the main road from Preston to Kirkham, and Newton on a loop to the south. The name Newton is from Old English, meaning "new farm" or "new village"; Scales is from a word of Scandinavian origin meaning "hut". Newton was mentioned in the Domesday Book as a member of the fee of Earl Tostig. By 1212 it had become part of the barony of Penwortham. In the 16th century both Newton and Scales were referred to as manors. Newton Bluecoat ...
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Scales, California
Scales is an unincorporated community in Sierra County, California, in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territori .... References Unincorporated communities in Sierra County, California Unincorporated communities in California {{SierraCountyCA-geo-stub ...
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Scale (social Sciences)
In the social sciences, scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits. For example, a scaling technique might involve estimating individuals' levels of extraversion, or the perceived quality of products. Certain methods of scaling permit estimation of magnitudes on a continuum, while other methods provide only for relative ordering of the entities. The level of measurement is the type of data that is measured. The word scale, including in academic literature, is sometimes used to refer to another composite measure, that of an index. Those concepts are however different. Scale construction decisions *What level ( level of measurement) of data is involved (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio)? *What will the results be used for? *What should be used - a scale, index, or typology? *What types of statistical analysis would be useful? *Choose to use a comparative scale or a noncomparative scale. *How many scale divisi ...
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Scale (chemistry)
The scale of a chemical process refers to the rough ranges in mass or volume of a chemical reaction or process that define the appropriate category of chemical apparatus and equipment required to accomplish it, and the concepts, priorities, and economies that operate at each. While the specific terms used—and limits of mass or volume that apply to them—can vary between specific industries, the concepts are used broadly across industry and the fundamental scientific fields that support them. Use of the term "scale" is unrelated to the concept of weighing; rather it is related to cognate terms in mathematics (e.g., geometric scaling, the linear transformation that enlarges or shrinks objects, and scale parameters in probability theory), and in applied areas (e.g., in the scaling of images in architecture, engineering, cartography, etc.). Practically speaking, the scale of chemical operations also relates to the training required to carry them out, and can be broken out roughly ...
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Mill Scale
Mill scale, often shortened to just scale, is the flaky surface of hot rolled steel, consisting of the mixed iron oxides iron(II) oxide (FeO), iron(III) oxide (), and iron(II,III) oxide (, magnetite). Mill scale is formed on the outer surfaces of plates, sheets or profiles when they are being produced by rolling red hot iron or steel billets in rolling mills. Mill scale is bluish-black in color. It is usually less than thick, and initially adheres to the steel surface and protects it from atmospheric corrosion provided no break occurs in this coating. Because it is electrochemically cathodic to steel, any break in the mill scale coating will cause accelerated corrosion of steel exposed at the break. Mill scale is thus a boon for a while until its coating breaks due to handling of the steel product or due to any other mechanical cause. Mill scale becomes a nuisance when the steel is to be processed. Any paint applied over it is wasted, since it will come off with the scale as ...
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Limescale
Limescale is a hard, chalky deposit, consisting mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It often builds up inside kettles, boilers, and pipework, especially that for hot water. It is also often found as a similar deposit on the inner surfaces of old pipes and other surfaces where "hard water" has flown. Limescale also forms as travertine or tufa in hard water springs. The colour varies from off-white through a range of greys and pink or reddish browns, depending on the other minerals present. Iron compounds give the reddish-browns. In addition to being unsightly and hard to clean, limescale can seriously damage or impair the operation of various plumbing and heating components.Hermann Weingärtner, "Water" in ''Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry'', December 2006, Wiley–VCH, Weinheim. Descaling agents are commonly used to remove limescale. Prevention of fouling by scale build-up relies on the technologies of water softening or other water treatment. Chemical compo ...
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Fouling
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces. The fouling materials can consist of either living organisms (biofouling) or a non-living substance (inorganic or organic). Fouling is usually distinguished from other surface-growth phenomena in that it occurs on a surface of a component, system, or plant performing a defined and useful function and that the fouling process impedes or interferes with this function. Other terms used in the literature to describe fouling include deposit formation, encrustation, crudding, deposition, scaling, scale formation, slagging, and sludge formation. The last six terms have a more narrow meaning than fouling within the scope of the fouling science and technology, and they also have meanings outside of this scope; therefore, they should be used with caution. Fouling phenomena are common and diverse, ranging from fouling of ship hulls, natural surfaces in the marine environment ( marine fouling), fouling of heat-transfe ...
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Scale Insect
Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the infraorder Coccomorpha which is considered a more convenient grouping than the superfamily Coccoidea due to taxonomic uncertainties. Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. Some species are hermaphroditic, with a combined ovotestis instead of separate ovaries and testes. Males, in the species where they occur, have legs and sometimes wings, and resemble small flies. Scale insects are herbivores, piercing plant tissues with their mouthparts and remaining in one place, feeding on sap. The excess fluid they imbibe is secreted as honeydew on which sooty mold tends to grow. The insects often have a mutualistic relationship with ants, which feed on the honeydew and protect them from predators. There are about 8,000 descr ...
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Bulb
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf basesBell, A.D. 1997. ''Plant form: an illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology''. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. that function as food storage organs during dormancy. (In gardening, plants with other kinds of storage organ are also called "ornamental bulbous plants" or just "bulbs".) Description The bulb's leaf bases, also known as scales, generally do not support leaves, but contain food reserves to enable the plant to survive adverse conditions. At the center of the bulb is a vegetative growing point or an unexpanded flowering shoot. The base is formed by a reduced stem, and plant growth occurs from this basal plate. Roots emerge from the underside of the base, and new stems and leaves from the upper side. Tunicate bulbs have dry, membranous outer scales that protect the continuous lamina of fleshy scales. Species in the genera ''Allium'', ''Hippeastrum'', '' Narcissus'', and ''Tulipa' ...
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