SYSV Checksum
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SYSV Checksum
The SYSV checksum algorithm was a commonly used, legacy checksum algorithm. It has been implemented in UNIX System V and is also available through the sum command line utility. This algorithm is useless on a security perspective, and is weaker than the CRC-32 cksum for error detection. — manual pages from GNU coreutils The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing implementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, which are used on Unix-like operating systems. In September 2002, the ''GNU coreutils'' were ... Description of the algorithm The main part of this algorithm is simply adding up all bytes in a 32-bit sum. As a result, this algorithm has the characteristics of a simple sum: * re-arranging the same bytes in another order (e.g. moving text from one place to another place) does not change the checksum. * increasing one byte and decreasing another byte by the same amount does not change the checksum. * adding or ...
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Checksum
A checksum is a small-sized block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity. The procedure which generates this checksum is called a checksum function or checksum algorithm. Depending on its design goals, a good checksum algorithm usually outputs a significantly different value, even for small changes made to the input. This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted. Checksum functions are related to hash functions, fingerprints, randomization functi ...
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UNIX System V
Unix System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system. It was originally developed by AT&T and first released in 1983. Four major versions of System V were released, numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4. System V Release 4 (SVR4) was commercially the most successful version, being the result of an effort, marketed as ''Unix System Unification'', which solicited the collaboration of the major Unix vendors. It was the source of several common commercial Unix features. System V is sometimes abbreviated to SysV. , the AT&T-derived Unix market is divided between four System V variants: IBM's AIX, Hewlett Packard Enterprise's HP-UX and Oracle's Solaris, plus the free-software illumos forked from OpenSolaris. Overview Introduction System V was the successor to 1982's UNIX System III. While AT&T developed and sold hardware that ran System V, most customers ran a version from a reseller, based on AT&T's reference implementation. ...
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Sum (Unix)
is a legacy utility available on some Unix and Unix-like operating systems. This utility outputs a 16-bit checksum of each argument file, as well as the number of blocks they take on disk. — manual pages from GNU coreutils Two different checksum algorithms are in use. POSIX abandoned sum in favor of cksum. Overview The program is generally only useful for historical interest. It is not part of POSIX. Two algorithms are typically available: a BSD checksum and a SYSV checksum. Both are weaker than the already weak 32-bit CRC used by cksum. The default algorithm on FreeBSD and GNU implementations is the BSD checksum. Switching between the two algorithms is done via command line options. The two commonly used algorithms are as follows. The BSD sum, -r in GNU sum and -o1 in FreeBSD cksum: * Initialize checksum to 0 * For each byte of the input stream ** Perform 16-bit bitwise right rotation by 1 bit on the checksum ** Add the byte to the checksum, and apply modulo 2 ^ 16 to ...
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Cksum
cksum is a command in Unix and Unix-like operating systems that generates a checksum value for a file or stream of data. The cksum command reads each file given in its arguments, or standard input if no arguments are provided, and outputs the file's 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum and byte count. The CRC output by cksum is different from the CRC-32 used in zip, PNG and zlib. The cksum command can be used to verify that files transferred by unreliable means arrived intact. However, the CRC checksum calculated by the cksum command is not cryptographically secure: While it guards against ''accidental'' corruption (it is unlikely that the corrupted data will have the same checksum as the intended data), it is not difficult for an attacker to ''deliberately'' corrupt the file in a specific way that its checksum is unchanged. Unix-like systems typically include other commands for cryptographically secure checksums, such as sha256sum. The command is available as a separa ...
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Coreutils
The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing implementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, which are used on Unix-like operating systems. In September 2002, the ''GNU coreutils'' were created by merging the earlier packages ''textutils'', ''shellutils'', and ''fileutils'', along with some other miscellaneous utilities. In July 2007, the license of the GNU coreutils was updated from GPL-2.0-or-later to GPL-3.0-or-later. The GNU core utilities support long options as parameters to the commands, as well as the relaxed convention allowing options even after the regular arguments (unless the environment variable is set). Note that this environment variable enables a different functionality in BSD. See the List of GNU Core Utilities commands for a brief description of included commands. Alternative implementation packages are available in the FOSS ecosystem, with a slightly different scope and focus, or license. For exam ...
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