Row And Column Spaces
In linear algebra, the column space (also called the range or image) of a matrix ''A'' is the span (set of all possible linear combinations) of its column vectors. The column space of a matrix is the image or range of the corresponding matrix transformation. Let \mathbb be a field. The column space of an matrix with components from \mathbb is a linear subspace of the ''m''space \mathbb^m. The dimension of the column space is called the rank of the matrix and is at most .Linear algebra, as discussed in this article, is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. Almost all of the material in this article can be found in Lay 2005, Meyer 2001, and Strang 2005. A definition for matrices over a ring \mathbb is also possible. The row space is defined similarly. The row space and the column space of a matrix are sometimes denoted as and respectively. This article considers matrices of real numbers. The row and column spaces are subspa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix Rows
Matrix most commonly refers to: * ''The Matrix'' (franchise), an American media franchise ** ''The Matrix'', a 1999 sciencefiction action film ** "The Matrix", a fictional setting, a virtual reality environment, within ''The Matrix'' (franchise) * Matrix (mathematics), a rectangular array of numbers, symbols or expressions Matrix (or its plural form matrices) may also refer to: Science and mathematics * Matrix (mathematics), algebraic structure, extension of vector into 2 dimensions * Matrix (logic), part of a formula in prenex normal form * Matrix (biology), the material in between a eukaryotic organism's cells * Matrix (chemical analysis), the nonanalyte components of a sample * Matrix (geology), the finegrained material in which larger objects are embedded * Matrix (composite), the constituent of a composite material * Hair matrix, produces hair * Nail matrix, part of the nail in anatomy Arts and entertainment Fictional entities * Matrix (comics), two comic book ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

For Matrices Over A Ring
For or FOR may refer to: English language *For, a preposition *For, a complementizer *For, a grammatical conjunction Science and technology * Fornax, a constellation * for loop, a programming language statement * Frame of reference, in physics * Field of regard, in optoelectronics * Forced outage rate, in reliability engineering Other uses * Fellowship of Reconciliation, a number of religious nonviolent organizations * Pinto Martins International Airport (IATA airport code), an airport in Brazil * Revolutionary Workers Ferment (''Fomento Obrero Revolucionario''), a small left communist international * Fast oil recovery Fast oil recovery (FOR) is a term comprising various innovative systems which can be built into a new ship or integrated into an old ship, thus facilitating efficient and safe removal of an oil spill from a wrecked vessel. The drastic consequences ..., systems to remove an oil spill from a wrecked ship * Field of Research, a component of the Australian and Ne ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Threedimensional Space
Threedimensional space (also: 3D space, 3space or, rarely, tridimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called ''parameters'') are required to determine the position (geometry), position of an element (i.e., Point (mathematics), point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In mathematics, a tuple of Real number, numbers can be understood as the Cartesian coordinates of a location in a dimensional Euclidean space. The set of these tuples is commonly denoted \R^n, and can be identified to the dimensional Euclidean space. When , this space is called threedimensional Euclidean space (or simply Euclidean space when the context is clear). It serves as a model of the physical universe (when relativity theory is not considered), in which all known matter exists. While this space remains the most compelling and useful way to model the world as it is experienced, it is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plane (mathematics)
In mathematics, a plane is a Euclidean space, Euclidean (flatness (mathematics), flat), twodimensional surface (mathematics), surface that extends indefinitely. A plane is the twodimensional analogue of a point (geometry), point (zero dimensions), a line (geometry), line (one dimension) and threedimensional space. Planes can arise as Euclidean subspace, subspaces of some higherdimensional space, as with one of a room's walls, infinitely extended, or they may enjoy an independent existence in their own right, as in the setting of twodimensional Euclidean geometry. Sometimes the word ''plane'' is used more generally to describe a twodimensional surface (mathematics), surface, for example the hyperbolic plane and elliptic plane. When working exclusively in twodimensional Euclidean space, the definite article is used, so ''the'' plane refers to the whole space. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory, and graph of a function, graphing are p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartesian Coordinates
A Cartesian coordinate system (, ) in a plane is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference coordinate line is called a ''coordinate axis'' or just ''axis'' (plural ''axes'') of the system, and the point where they meet is its ''origin'', at ordered pair . The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in threedimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes (or, equivalently, by its perpendicular projection onto three mutually perpendicular lines). In general, ''n'' Cartesian coordinates (an element of real ''n''space) specify the point in an ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Scalar (mathematics)
A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a ''vector space''. In linear algebra, real numbers or generally elements of a field are called scalars and relate to vectors in an associated vector space through the operation of scalar multiplication (defined in the vector space), in which a vector can be multiplied by a scalar in the defined way to produce another vector. Generally speaking, a vector space may be defined by using any field instead of real numbers (such as complex numbers). Then scalars of that vector space will be elements of the associated field (such as complex numbers). A scalar product operation – not to be confused with scalar multiplication – may be defined on a vector space, allowing two vectors to be multiplied in the defined way to produce a scalar. A vector space equipped with a scalar product is called an inner product space. A quantity described by multiple scalars, such as having both direction and magnitude, is called a '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthogonality
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the geometric notion of ''perpendicularity''. By extension, orthogonality is also used to refer to the separation of specific features of a system. The term also has specialized meanings in other fields including art and chemistry. Etymology The word comes from the Ancient Greek ('), meaning "upright", and ('), meaning "angle". The Ancient Greek (') and Classical Latin ' originally denoted a rectangle. Later, they came to mean a right triangle. In the 12th century, the postclassical Latin word ''orthogonalis'' came to mean a right angle or something related to a right angle. Mathematics Physics * In optics, polarization states are said to be orthogonal when they propagate independently of each other, as in vertical and horizontal linear polarization or right and lefthanded circular polarization. * In special relativity, a time axis determined by a rapidity of motion is hyperbolicorthogonal to a space axis of simu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Independence
In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if there is a nontrivial linear combination of the vectors that equals the zero vector. If no such linear combination exists, then the vectors are said to be . These concepts are central to the definition of dimension. A vector space can be of finite dimension or infinite dimension depending on the maximum number of linearly independent vectors. The definition of linear dependence and the ability to determine whether a subset of vectors in a vector space is linearly dependent are central to determining the dimension of a vector space. Definition A sequence of vectors \mathbf_1, \mathbf_2, \dots, \mathbf_k from a vector space is said to be ''linearly dependent'', if there exist scalars a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k, not all zero, such that :a_1\mathbf_1 + a_2\mathbf_2 + \cdots + a_k\mathbf_k = \mathbf, where \mathbf denotes the zero vector. This implies that at least one of the scalars is nonzero, say a_1\ne 0, an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Span
In mathematics, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set of vectors (from a vector space), denoted , pp. 2930, §§ 2.5, 2.8 is defined as the set of all linear combinations of the vectors in . It can be characterized either as the intersection of all linear subspaces that contain , or as the smallest subspace containing . The linear span of a set of vectors is therefore a vector space itself. Spans can be generalized to matroids and modules. To express that a vector space is a linear span of a subset , one commonly uses the following phrases—either: spans , is a spanning set of , is spanned/generated by , or is a generator or generator set of . Definition Given a vector space over a field , the span of a set of vectors (not necessarily infinite) is defined to be the intersection of all subspaces of that contain . is referred to as the subspace ''spanned by'' , or by the vectors in . Conversely, is called a ''spanning set'' of , and we ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Singular Value Decomposition
In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any \ m \times n\ matrix. It is related to the polar decomposition. Specifically, the singular value decomposition of an \ m \times n\ complex matrix is a factorization of the form \ \mathbf = \mathbf\ , where is an \ m \times m\ complex unitary matrix, \ \mathbf\ is an \ m \times n\ rectangular diagonal matrix with nonnegative real numbers on the diagonal, is an n \times n complex unitary matrix, and \ \mathbf\ is the conjugate transpose of . Such decomposition always exists for any complex matrix. If is real, then and can be guaranteed to be real orthogonal matrices; in such contexts, the SVD is often denoted \ \mathbf^\mathsf\ . The diagonal entries \ \sigma_i = \Sigma_\ of \ \mathbf\ are uniquely determined by and are known as the singular values of . The n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Transformation
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation, vector space homomorphism, or in some contexts linear function) is a mapping V \to W between two vector spaces that preserves the operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication. The same names and the same definition are also used for the more general case of modules over a ring; see Module homomorphism. If a linear map is a bijection then it is called a . In the case where V = W, a linear map is called a (linear) ''endomorphism''. Sometimes the term refers to this case, but the term "linear operator" can have different meanings for different conventions: for example, it can be used to emphasize that V and W are real vector spaces (not necessarily with V = W), or it can be used to emphasize that V is a function space, which is a common convention in functional analysis. Sometimes the term ''linear function'' has the same meaning as ''linear map ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 