Rng (algebra)
In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, a rng (or nonunital ring or pseudoring) is an algebraic structure satisfying the same properties as a ring, but without assuming the existence of a multiplicative identity. The term ''rng'' (IPA: ) is meant to suggest that it is a ring without ''i'', that is, without the requirement for an identity element. There is no consensus in the community as to whether the existence of a multiplicative identity must be one of the ring axioms (see ). The term ''rng'' was coined to alleviate this ambiguity when people want to refer explicitly to a ring without the axiom of multiplicative identity. A number of algebras of functions considered in analysis are not unital, for instance the algebra of functions decreasing to zero at infinity, especially those with compact support on some (noncompact) space. Definition Formally, a rng is a set ''R'' with two binary operations called ''addition'' and ''multiplication'' such that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, \begin1 & 9 & 13 \\20 & 5 & 6 \end is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a "matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra. Therefore, the study of matrices is a large part of linear algebra, and most properties and operations of abstract linear algebra can be expressed in terms of matrices. For example, matrix multiplication represents composition of linear maps. Not all matrices are related to linear algebra. This is, in particular, the case in graph theory, of incidence matrices, and adjacency matrices. ''This article focuses on matrices related to linear algebra, and, u ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Schwartz Space
In mathematics, Schwartz space \mathcal is the function space of all functions whose derivatives are rapidly decreasing. This space has the important property that the Fourier transform is an automorphism on this space. This property enables one, by duality, to define the Fourier transform for elements in the dual space \mathcal^* of \mathcal, that is, for tempered distributions. A function in the Schwartz space is sometimes called a Schwartz function. Schwartz space is named after French mathematician Laurent Schwartz. Definition Let \mathbb be the set of nonnegative integers, and for any n \in \mathbb, let \mathbb^n := \underbrace_ be the ''n''fold Cartesian product. The ''Schwartz space'' or space of rapidly decreasing functions on \mathbb^n is the function spaceS \left(\mathbb^n, \mathbb\right) := \left \,where C^(\mathbb^n, \mathbb) is the function space of smooth functions from \mathbb^n into \mathbb, and\, f\, _:= \sup_ \left, x^\alpha (D^ f)(x) \.Here, \sup den ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Theory Of Distributions
A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research. Theories may be scientific, belong to a nonscientific discipline, or no discipline at all. Depending on the context, a theory's assertions might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings. In modern science, the term "theory" refers to scientific theories, a wellconfirmed type of explanation of nature, made in a way consistent with the scientific method, and fulfilling the criteria required by modern science. Such theories are described in such a way that scientific tests should be able to provide empirical support for it, or empirical contradiction ("falsify") of it. Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Test Function
Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distributions make it possible to differentiate functions whose derivatives do not exist in the classical sense. In particular, any locally integrable function has a distributional derivative. Distributions are widely used in the theory of partial differential equations, where it may be easier to establish the existence of distributional solutions than classical solutions, or where appropriate classical solutions may not exist. Distributions are also important in physics and engineering where many problems naturally lead to differential equations whose solutions or initial conditions are singular, such as the Dirac delta function. A function f is normally thought of as on the in the function domain by "sending" a point x in its domain to the point f(x). Instead of acting on points, distribution theory reinterpr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit Of A Sequence
As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) becomes arbitrarily close to 1. We say that "the limit of the sequence n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) equals 1." In mathematics, the limit of a sequence is the value that the terms of a sequence "tend to", and is often denoted using the \lim symbol (e.g., \lim_a_n).Courant (1961), p. 29. If such a limit exists, the sequence is called convergent. A sequence that does not converge is said to be divergent. The limit of a sequence is said to be the fundamental notion on which the whole of mathematical analysis ultimately rests. Limits can be defined in any metric or topological space, but are usually first encountered in the real numbers. History The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea is famous for formulating paradoxes that involve limiting processes. Leucippus, Democritus, Antiphon, Eudoxus, and Archimedes developed the method of exhaustion, which uses an infinite sequence of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sequence
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''inf ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Functional Composition
In mathematics, function composition is an operation that takes two functions and , and produces a function such that . In this operation, the function is applied to the result of applying the function to . That is, the functions and are composed to yield a function that maps in domain to in codomain . Intuitively, if is a function of , and is a function of , then is a function of . The resulting ''composite'' function is denoted , defined by for all in . The notation is read as " of ", " after ", " circle ", " round ", " about ", " composed with ", " following ", " then ", or " on ", or "the composition of and ". Intuitively, composing functions is a chaining process in which the output of function feeds the input of function . The composition of functions is a special case of the composition of relations, sometimes also denoted by \circ. As a result, all properties of composition of relations are true of composition of functions, such as th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. p. 48, § 1.16 This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of . This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the " nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by . There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics. The rank is commonly denoted by or ; sometimes the parentheses are not written, as in .Alternative notation includes \rho (\Phi) from and . Main definitions In this section, we give some definitions of the rank of a matrix. Many definitions are possible; see Alternative definitions for several of these. The column rank of is the dimension of the column space of , while the row rank of is the dimension of the row space of . A fundamental result in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called ''scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dimension (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space ''V'' is the cardinality (i.e., the number of vectors) of a basis of ''V'' over its base field. p. 44, §2.36 It is sometimes called Hamel dimension (after Georg Hamel) or algebraic dimension to distinguish it from other types of dimension. For every vector space there exists a basis, and all bases of a vector space have equal cardinality; as a result, the dimension of a vector space is uniquely defined. We say V is if the dimension of V is finite, and if its dimension is infinite. The dimension of the vector space V over the field F can be written as \dim_F(V) or as : F read "dimension of V over F". When F can be inferred from context, \dim(V) is typically written. Examples The vector space \R^3 has \left\ as a standard basis, and therefore \dim_(\R^3) = 3. More generally, \dim_(\R^n) = n, and even more generally, \dim_(F^n) = n for any field F. The complex numbers \Complex are both a real and complex vector space; we hav ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 