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Ripple Marks
In geology, ripple marks are sedimentary structures (i.e., bedforms of the lower flow regime) and indicate agitation by water (current or waves) or wind. Defining ripple cross-laminae and asymmetric ripples * ''Current ripple marks'', ''unidirectional ripples'', or ''asymmetrical ripple marks'' are asymmetrical in profile, with a gentle up-current slope and a steeper down-current slope. The down-current slope is the angle of repose, which depends on the shape of the sediment. These commonly form in fluvial and aeolian depositional environments, and are a signifier of the lower part of the Lower Flow Regime. * Ripple cross-laminae forms when deposition takes place during migration of current or wave ripples. A series of cross-laminae are produced by superimposing migrating ripples. The ripples form lateral to one another, such that the crests of vertically succeeding laminae are out of phase and appear to be advancing upslope. This process results in cross-bedded units that h ...
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Ripple Marks In Moenkopi Formation Rock Off Of Capitol Reef Scenic Drive
Ripple may refer to: Science and technology * Capillary wave, commonly known as ripple, a wave traveling along the phase boundary of a fluid ** Ripple, more generally a disturbance, for example of spacetime in gravitational waves * Ripple (electrical), residual periodic variation in DC voltage during ac to dc conversion ** Ripple current, pulsed current draw caused by some non-linear devices and circuits ** Frequency-domain ripple ** Ringing (signal), oscillation of a signal, particularly in the step response * Polarization ripples, appearing after irradiation of a solid by energy flux (laser, ions, etc.) * Ripple marks, as identified in sediments and sedimentary rocks * Ripple (payment protocol), a real-time payment system by Ripple Labs * Ripple control, a form of electrical load management * Various brainwave patterns, including those which follow sharp waves in the hippocampus Organizations * Ripple (charitable organisation), a non-profit click-to-donate internet site and search ...
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Wren's Nest
The Wren's Nest is a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Dudley Metropolitan Borough, north west of the town centre of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England. It is one of the most important geological locations in Britain. It is also a Local Nature Reserve, a national nature reserve (NNR) and Scheduled Ancient Monument. The site is home to a number of species of birds and locally rare flora, such as Small Scabious, Milkwort and Quaking Grass. The caverns are also a nationally important hibernation site for seven different species of bat. The Wren's Nest National Nature Reserve Ancient history The Wren's Nest National Nature Reserve is world-famous geologically for its well-preserved Silurian coral reef fossils. Considered the most diverse and abundant fossil site in the British Isles, more than 700 types of fossil have been found at the site, 86 of which are unique to the location, including ''Calymene blumenbachii'', a trilobite nicknamed the ''Dudley Bug'' ...
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Dinosaur Ridge
Dinosaur Ridge is a segment of the Dakota Hogback in the Morrison Fossil Area National Natural Landmark located in Jefferson County, Colorado, near the town of Morrison and just west of Denver. The Dinosaur Ridge area is one of the world's most famous dinosaur fossil localities. In 1877, fossil excavation began at Dinosaur Ridge under the direction of paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh. Some of the best-known dinosaurs were found here, including ''Stegosaurus'', ''Apatosaurus'', ''Diplodocus'', and ''Allosaurus''. In 1973, the area was recognized for its uniqueness as well as its historical and scientific significance when it was designated the Morrison Fossil Area National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service. In 1989, the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge formed to address increasing concerns regarding the preservation of the site and to offer educational programs on the area's resources. The rocks on the west side of Dinosaur Ridge are part of the widespread Morrison Forma ...
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Dakota Formation
The Dakota is a sedimentary geologic unit name of formation and group rank composed of sandstones, mudstones, clays, and shales deposited in the Mid-Cretaceous opening of the Western Interior Seaway.Monroe, James S. and Wicander, Reed (1997) ''The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution'' (2nd edition) Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, page 610, The usage of the name Dakota for this particular Albian-Cenomanian strata is exceptionally widespread; from British Columbia and Alberta to Montana and Wisconsin to Colorado and Kansas to Utah and Arizona. It is famous for producing massive colorful rock formations in the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains of the United States, and for preserving both dinosaur footprints and early deciduous tree leaves. Owing to extensive weathering of older rocks during the Jurassic and Triassic, the Dakota strata lie unconformably atop many different formations ranging in age from Precambrian to Early Cretaceous. With a few loca ...
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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous (, ) is a geological period that lasted from about 145 to 66 million years ago (mya). It is the third and final period of the Mesozoic Era, as well as the longest. At nearly 80 million years, it is the longest geological period of the entire Phanerozoic, almost surpassing the Ediacaran & Cryogenian in size. The name is derived from the Latin ''creta'', 'chalk', which is abundant in the latter half of the period. It is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation ''Kreide''. The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. The world was ice free, and forests extended to the poles. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds appeared. During the Early Cretaceous, flowering plants appeared and began to rapidly diversify, becoming t ...
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Crest Trough
Crest or CREST may refer to: Buildings *The Crest (Huntington, New York), a historic house in Suffolk County, New York *"The Crest", an alternate name for 63 Wall Street, in Manhattan, New York *Crest Castle (Château Du Crest), Jussy, Switzerland *Crest House, a building, now in ruins, at the summit of Mount Evans in Colorado *Crest Theatre, a historic theatre in downtown Sacramento, California *Crest Theatre, formerly Majestic Crest Theatre, Los Angeles, California *Crest Theatre, in Old School Square, Delray Beach, Florida Business or commerce *Crest (toothpaste), a brand of toothpaste *Crest Audio, an American manufacturer of power amplifiers and mixing consoles *Crest Animation Productions, an animation studio in Burbank, California *Crest Animation Studios, an animation studio in India *Crest Books, an imprint of now defunct Fawcett Publications *Crest Hotels, a defunct hotel chain in the UK *Crest Manufacturing Company, producer of the Crestmobile automobile in the 1900s * ...
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Transverse Aeolian Ridges
Transverse aeolian ridges (TARs) are visually bright features commonly found in topographic depressions on Mars. These small-scale and relict bedforms were first seen in narrow-angle images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and were called “ridges” to preserve both dunes and ripples as formative mechanisms. While TARs are widespread on Mars, their formation, age, composition, and role in past Martian sediment cycles remain poorly constrained. Aeolian bedforms Aeolian bedforms are typically classified into either ripples or dunes based on their morphologies and formative mechanisms. Dunes are larger (>0.5 m or taller on Earth), typically asymmetrical in cross-profile, and are the product of hydrodynamic instability related to sand flux, the local topography, shear stress exerted by the wind on sand grains, and flow-form interactions induced by the topography of the dune itself. Wind ripples by comparison are small (amplitudes of 0.6 - 15 mm), are more symmetrical in profile, and ...
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Saltation (geology)
In geology, saltation (from Latin ''saltus'', "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water. It occurs when loose materials are removed from a bed and carried by the fluid, before being transported back to the surface. Examples include pebble transport by rivers, sand drift over desert surfaces, soil blowing over fields, and snow drift over smooth surfaces such as those in the Arctic or Canadian Prairies. Process At low fluid velocities, loose material rolls downstream, staying in contact with the surface. This is called ''creep'' or ''reptation''. Here the forces exerted by the fluid on the particle are only enough to roll the particle around the point of contact with the surface. Once the wind speed reaches a certain critical value, termed the ''impact'' or ''fluid threshold'', the drag and lift forces exerted by the fluid are sufficient to lift some particles from the surface. These particles are accelerated by the fluid, and pulled downward b ...
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1969 Afghanistan (Sistan) Wind Ripples
Events January * January 1 – Ohio State defeats USC in the Rose Bowl to win the national college football championship for the 1968 season. * January 2 ** Australian media baron Rupert Murdoch purchases the largest-selling British Sunday newspaper, ''The News of the World''. ** People's Democracy begins a march from Belfast to Derry City, Northern Ireland to gain publicity and to promote its cause. * January 4 – The Government of Spain hands over Ifni to Morocco. * January 5 **Ariana Afghan Airlines Flight 701 crashes into a house on its approach to London's Gatwick Airport, killing 50 of the 62 people on board and two of the home's occupants. **The Soviet Union launches Venera 5 toward Venus. * January 7 – The final passenger train traverses the Waverley Line in Scotland, which subsequently closes to passengers. * January 10 – The Soviet Union launches Venera 6 toward Venus. * January 12 ** ''Led Zeppelin'', the first Led Zeppelin album, is released ...
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Stream Bed
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The flow of a stream is controlled by three inputs – surface water, subsurface water and groundwater. The surface and subsurface water are highly variable between periods of rainfall. Groundwater, on the other hand, has a relatively constant input and is controlled more by long-term patterns of precipitation. The stream encompasses surface, subsurface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological, hydrological and biotic controls. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Long large streams are usually called rivers. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene ...
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Sinusoidal
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation. A sine wave is a continuous wave. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in both pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields. Its most basic form as a function of time (''t'') is: : y(t) = A\sin(2 \pi f t + \varphi) = A\sin(\omega t + \varphi) where: * ''A'', ''amplitude'', the peak deviation of the function from zero. * ''f'', ''ordinary frequency'', the ''number'' of oscillations (cycles) that occur each second of time. * ''ω'' = 2π''f'', ''angular frequency'', the rate of change of the function argument in units of radians per second * \varphi, ''phase'', specifies (in radians) where in its cycle the oscillation is at ''t'' = 0. When \varphi is non-zero, the entire waveform appears to be shifted in time by the amount \varphi/''ω'' seconds. A negative value represents a delay, and a ...
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Symmetric
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία ''symmetria'' "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, and is usually used to refer to an object that is invariant under some transformations; including translation, reflection, rotation or scaling. Although these two meanings of "symmetry" can sometimes be told apart, they are intricately related, and hence are discussed together in this article. Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time; as a spatial relationship; through geometric transformations; through other kinds of functional transformations; and as an aspect of abstract objects, including theoretic models, language, and music. This article describes symmetry from three perspectives: in mathematics, including geometry, the most familiar type of symmetry for many people; in science and na ...
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Random Formation Tidal Megaripples
In common parlance, randomness is the apparent or actual lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are, by definition, unpredictable, but if the probability distribution is known, the frequency of different outcomes over repeated events (or "trials") is predictable.Strictly speaking, the frequency of an outcome will converge almost surely to a predictable value as the number of trials becomes arbitrarily large. Non-convergence or convergence to a different value is possible, but has probability zero. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will tend to occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is not haphazardness; it is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome. Randomness applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy. The fields o ...
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Sand Waves
A sand wave is a lower regime sedimentary structure that forms across from tidal currents. Formation Sand waves are formed through the action of the wind or water (through waves or tidal currents). Sand waves form also underwater.https://www.researchgate.net/figure/View-toward-San-Francisco-Bay-of-the-massive-sand-wave-field-The-Golden-Gate-Bridge-is_fig2_229034869 See also * Sand dune * Ripple marks References External links {{geology-stub Category:Sedimentology Category:Patterned grounds Category:Sedimentary structures ...
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