Revolutions Of 1848 In The Habsburg Areas
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Revolutions Of 1848 In The Habsburg Areas
The Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire were a set of revolutions that took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849. Much of the revolutionary activity had a nationalist character: the Empire, ruled from Vienna, included ethnic Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Romanians, Croats, Venetians and Serbs; all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities. The nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity. Besides these nationalists, liberal and even socialist currents resisted the Empire's longstanding conservatism. Preamble The events of 1848 were the product of mounting social and political tensions after the Congress of Vienna of 1815. During the "pre-March" period, the already conservative Austrian Empire moved further ...
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Revolutions Of 1848
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe starting in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history to date. The revolutions were essentially Democracy, democratic and Liberalism, liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old Monarchy, monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, as envisioned by romantic nationalism. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in French Revolution of 1848, France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. Some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation (decision making), participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by th ...
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Polish National Committee (1848)
Polish National Committee ( pl, Komitet Narodowy Polski) was as organisation created during the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848. It was organized on March 20, 1848, at the Hotel Bazar in Poznań. During the uprising, the Polish people mounted a military insurrection in the Grand Duchy of Poznań (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces. The Committee was to serve as a legal organization representing Polish interests in negotiations with the Kingdom of Prussia. The chairman of the committee was Gustaw Potworowski, and the other members included: * Maciej Mielżyński *Cyprian Jarochowski * Jędrzej Moraczewski *Walenty Stefański * Ryszard Berwiński * Jakub Krauthofer * Paweł Andrzejewski * Jan Palacz * Józef Chosłowski * Władysław Niegolewski *Pantaleon Szuman * Włodzimierz Wolniewicz * Antoni Kraszewski *doctor Teofil Matecki *pastor Jan Wilhelm Kassyusz * Karol Libelt *Józef Esman *Michał Słomczewski *prince Jan Janiszewski *prince An ...
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Germans
, native_name_lang = de , region1 = , pop1 = 72,650,269 , region2 = , pop2 = 534,000 , region3 = , pop3 = 157,000 3,322,405 , region4 = , pop4 = 21,000 3,000,000 , region5 = , pop5 = 125,000 982,226 , region6 = , pop6 = 900,000 , region7 = , pop7 = 142,000 840,000 , region8 = , pop8 = 9,000 500,000 , region9 = , pop9 = 357,000 , region10 = , pop10 = 310,000 , region11 = , pop11 = 36,000 250,000 , region12 = , pop12 = 25,000 200,000 , region13 = , pop13 = 233,000 , region14 = , pop14 = 211,000 , region15 = , pop15 = 203,000 , region16 = , pop16 = 201,000 , region17 = , pop17 = 101,000 148,00 ...
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Vienna
en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone = CET , utc_offset = +1 , timezone_DST = CEST , utc_offset_DST = +2 , blank_name = Vehicle registration , blank_info = W , blank1_name = GDP , blank1_info = € 96.5 billion (2020) , blank2_name = GDP per capita , blank2_info = € 50,400 (2020) , blank_name_sec1 = HDI (2019) , blank_info_sec1 = 0.947 · 1st of 9 , blank3_name = Seats in the Federal Council , blank3_info = , blank_name_sec2 = GeoTLD , blank_info_sec2 = .wien , website = , footnotes = , image_blank_emblem = Wien logo.svg , blank_emblem_size = Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; ba ...
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Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire (german: link=no, Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling , ) was a Central-Eastern European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous monarchy in Europe after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third-largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire (). The empire was proclaimed by Francis II in 1804 in response to Napoleon's declaration of the First French Empire, unifying all Habsburg possessions under one central government. It remained part of the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806. It continued fighting against Napoleon throughout the Napoleonic Wars, except for a period between 1809 and 1813, when Austria was first allied with Napoleon during the invasion of Ru ...
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Kingdom Of Galicia And Lodomeria
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria,, ; pl, Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii, ; uk, Королівство Галичини та Володимирії, Korolivstvo Halychyny ta Volodymyrii; la, Rēgnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae also known as Austrian Galicia or colloquially Austrian Poland, was a constituent possession of the Habsburg monarchy in the historical region of Galicia in Eastern Europe. The crownland was established in 1772. The lands were annexed from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as part of the First Partition of Poland. In 1804 it became a crownland of the newly proclaimed Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was a crownland within the Cisleithanian or Austrian half of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. It maintained a degree of provincial autonomy. Its status remained unchanged until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918. The domain was initially carved in 1772 from the south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the follo ...
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Kingdom Of Lombardy–Venetia
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia ( la, links=no, Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the "Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom" ( it, links=no, Regno Lombardo-Veneto, german: links=no, Königreich Lombardo-Venetien), was a constituent land (crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown. It is the equivalent of an entailed estate and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it ...) of the Austrian Empire from 1815 to 1866. It was created in 1815 by resolution of the Congress of Vienna in recognition of the Austrian House of Lorraine, House of Habsburg-Lorraine's rights to the former Duchy of Milan and the former Republic of Venice after the Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed in 1805, had collapsed. The kingdom would cease to exist within the next fifty years—the region of Lombardy was ceded to Second French Empire, Fr ...
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Lands Of The Bohemian Crown (1648–1867)
The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. There were invasions by the Turks early in the period, and by the Prussians in the next century. The Habsburgs consolidated their rule and under Maria Theresa (1740–1780) adopted enlightened absolutism, with distinct institutions of the Bohemian Kingdom absorbed into centralized structures. After the Napoleonic Wars and the establishment of the Austrian Empire, a Czech National Revival began as a scholarly trend among educated Czechs, led by figures such as František Palacký. Czech nationalism took a more politically active form during the 1848 revolution, and began to come into conflict not only with the Habsburgs but with emerging German nationalism. History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867) The Dark Age (1648–1740) After the Thirty Years' War ended, the ...
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Kingdom Of Croatia (Habsburg)
The Kingdom of Croatia ( hr, Kraljevina Hrvatska; la, Regnum Croatiae; hu, Horvát Királyság, german: Königreich Kroatien) was part of the lands of the Habsburg monarchy from 1527, following the Election in Cetin, and the Austrian Empire from 1804 to 1867. It was also a part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years. Its capital was Zagreb. The Kingdom of Croatia had large territorial losses in wars with the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Until the 18th century, the kingdom included only a small north-western part of present-day Croatia around Zagreb, and a small strip of coastland around Rijeka, that were not part of the Ottoman Empire or part of the Military Frontier. Between 1744 and 1868, the Kingdom of Croatia included a subordinate autonomous kingdom, the Kingdom of Slavonia. The territory of the Slavonian kingdom was recovered from the Ottoman Empire, and was s ...
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Kingdom Of Hungary (1526–1867)
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 existed as a state outside the Holy Roman Empire, but part of the lands of the Habsburg monarchy that became the Austrian Empire in 1804. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the country was ruled by two crowned kings (John I and Ferdinand I). Initially, the exact territory under Habsburg rule was disputed because both rulers claimed the whole kingdom. This unsettled period lasted until 1570 when John Sigismund Zápolya (John II) abdicated as King of Hungary in Emperor Maximilian II's favor. In the early stages, the lands that were ruled by the Habsburg Hungarian kings were regarded as both the "Kingdom of Hungary" and "Royal Hungary". Royal Hungary was the symbol of the continuity of formal law after the Ottoman occupation, because it could preserve its legal traditions, but in general, it was ''de facto'' a Habsburg province.Raphael PataThe Jews of Hungary: History, Culture, Psychology Wayne State University Press, 1996, p. 153 T ...
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Serbian Vojvodina
The Serbian Vojvodina ( sr, Српска Војводина / ) was a short-lived self-proclaimed Serb autonomous province within the Austrian Empire during the Revolutions of 1848, which existed until 1849 when it was transformed into the new (official) Austrian province named Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar. Name In German, it was known as . In Serbian is also known as (Serbian Cyrillic: , german: Serbische Woiwodschaft, link=no; "Serbian Voivodeship"), (Serbian Cyrillic: ; "Serbian Vojvodovina"), and (Serbian Cyrillic: ; "Vojvodovina of Serbia"). History During the 1848 Revolution, the Hungarians demanded independence from the Austrian Empire. However, they did not recognize the national rights of other nationalities which lived in the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary at that time. Therefore, the Serbs of Vojvodina took action to separate from the Kingdom of Hungary (which was at that time part of Habsburg Austria). An assembly was convened in Sremski Karlovci ...
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Slovak National Council (1848–49)
The Slovak National Council was a Slovak political body, which was created in Vienna on September 15–16, 1848 during the Revolutions of 1848. It was led by Ľudovít Štúr, Jozef Miloslav Hurban and Michal Miloslav Hodža. It organised the Slovak Uprising in 1848-1849 within the Revolution of 1848, as well as executive power in Western parts of Upper Hungary (today mostly Slovakia) occupied by united Austrian-Slovak forces within their fight against the Hungarians. The first meeting on the territory of contemporary Slovakia was in the house of Mrs. Koléniová in Myjava (then Miava). On 19 September 1848, the first national gathering of Slovaks took place in Myjava as part of the First Slovak Volunteer Campaign (from Vienna via Moravia to Slovakia). Ľudovít Štúr declared the independence of the Slovak nation from Hungary at the gathering. However, the Slovak National Council administered only Myjava Myjava (; historically also Miava, german: Miawa, hu, Miava) is a ...
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