Redemption Value
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Redemption Value
Redemption value is the price at which the issuing company may choose to repurchase a security before its maturity date. A bond is purchased "at a discount" if its redemption value exceeds its purchase price. It is purchased "at a premium" if its purchase price exceeds its redemption value. Thus, the right will only be exercised at a discount. Callable or Redeemable Bonds
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Security (finance)
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some countries and languages people commonly use the term "security" to refer to any form of financial instrument, even though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and Fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g., equity warrants. Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more typically, they may be "non-certificated", that is in electronic ( dematerialized) or "book entry only" form. Certificates may be ''bearer'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security merely by holding the security, or ''registered'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if they appear on a secur ...
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Callable Bond
A callable bond (also called redeemable bond) is a type of bond (debt security) that allows the issuer of the bond to retain the privilege of redeeming the bond at some point before the bond reaches its date of maturity. In other words, on the call date(s), the issuer has the right, but not the obligation, to buy back the bonds from the bond holders at a defined call price. Technically speaking, the bonds are not really bought and held by the issuer but are instead cancelled immediately. The call price will usually exceed the par or issue price. In certain cases, mainly in the high-yield debt market, there can be a substantial call premium. Thus, the issuer has an option which it pays for by offering a higher coupon rate. If interest rates in the market have gone down by the time of the call date, the issuer will be able to refinance its debt at a cheaper level and so will be incentivized to call the bonds it originally issued. Another way to look at this interplay is that, a ...
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Embedded Option
An embedded option is a component of a financial bond or other security, which provides the bondholder or the issuer the right to take some action against the other party. There are several types of options that can be embedded into a bond; common types of bonds with embedded options include callable bond, puttable bond, convertible bond, extendible bond, exchangeable bond, and capped floating rate note. A bond may have several options embedded if they are not mutually exclusive. Securities other than bonds that may have embedded options include senior equity, convertible preferred stock and exchangeable preferred stock. See Convertible security. The valuation of these securities couples bond- or equity-valuation, as appropriate, with option pricing. For bonds here, there are two main approaches, as follows.
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Convertible Bond
In finance, a convertible bond or convertible note or convertible debt (or a convertible debenture if it has a maturity of greater than 10 years) is a type of bond that the holder can convert into a specified number of shares of common stock in the issuing company or cash of equal value. It is a hybrid security with debt- and equity-like features. It originated in the mid-19th century, and was used by early speculators such as Jacob Little and Daniel Drew to counter market cornering. Convertible bonds are most often issued by companies with a low credit rating and high growth potential. Convertible bonds are also considered debt security because the companies agree to give fixed or floating interest rate as they do in common bonds for the funds of investor. To compensate for having additional value through the option to convert the bond to stock, a convertible bond typically has a coupon rate lower than that of similar, non-convertible debt. The investor receives the pot ...
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Bonds (finance)
Bond or bonds may refer to: Common meanings * Bond (finance), a type of debt security * Bail bond, a commercial third-party guarantor of surety bonds in the United States * Chemical bond, the attraction of atoms, ions or molecules to form chemical compounds People * Bond (surname) * Bonds (surname) * Mr. Bond (musician), Austrian rapper Arts and entertainment * James Bond, a series of works about the eponymous fictional character * James Bond (literary character), a British secret agent in a series of novels and films * Bond (band), an Australian/British string quartet ** '' Bond: Video Clip Collection'', a video collection from the band * Bond (Canadian band), a Canadian rock band in the 1970s * ''The Bond'' (2007 book), an American autobiography written by The Three Doctors * ''The Bond'', a 1918 film by Charlie Chaplin supporting Liberty bonds * Bond International Casino, a former music venue in New York City Places Antarctica * Bond Glacier, at the head of Vincenne ...
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Embedded Options
Embedded or embedding (alternatively imbedded or imbedding) may refer to: Science * Embedding, in mathematics, one instance of some mathematical object contained within another instance ** Graph embedding * Embedded generation, a distributed generation of energy, also known as decentralized generation * Self-embedding, in psychology, an activity in which one pushes items into one's own flesh in order to feel pain * Embedding, in biology, a part of sample preparation for microscopes Computing * Embedded system, a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by the device it controls * Embedding, installing media into a text document to form a compound document ** , a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) element that inserts a non-standard object into the HTML document * Web embed, an element of a host web page that is substantially independent of the host page * Font embedding, inclusion of font files inside an electronic document * Word embedding, a ...
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Fixed Income Analysis
Fixed income analysis is the process of determining the value of a debt security based on an assessment of its risk profile, which can include interest rate risk, risk of the issuer failing to repay the debt, market supply and demand for the security, call provisions and macroeconomic considerations affecting its value in the future. It also addresses the likely price behavior in hedging portfolios. Based on such an analysis, a fixed income analyst tries to reach a conclusion as to whether to buy, sell, hold, hedge or avoid the particular security. Fixed income products are generally bonds: debt instruments requiring the issuer (i.e. the debtor or borrower) to repay the lender the amount borrowed (principal) plus interest over a specified period of time (coupon payments) until maturity. They are issued by government treasuries, government agencies, companies or international organizations. Calculating Value To determine the value of a fixed income security, the analyst mus ...
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