Real Gas
Real gases are nonideal gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they do not adhere to the ideal gas law. To understand the behaviour of real gases, the following must be taken into account: *compressibility effects; *variable specific heat capacity; *van der Waals forces; *nonequilibrium thermodynamic effects; *issues with molecular dissociation and elementary reactions with variable composition For most applications, such a detailed analysis is unnecessary, and the ideal gas approximation can be used with reasonable accuracy. On the other hand, realgas models have to be used near the condensation point of gases, near critical points, at very high pressures, to explain the Joule–Thomson effect, and in other less usual cases. The deviation from ideality can be described by the compressibility factor Z. Models Van der Waals model Real gases are often modeled by taking into account their molar weight and molar volume :RT = \left(p + \frac\ri ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ideal Gas Law
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and GayLussac's law. The ideal gas law is often written in an empirical form: pV = nRT where p, V and T are the pressure, volume and temperature; n is the amount of substance; and R is the ideal gas constant. It can also be derived from the microscopic kinetic theory, as was achieved (apparently independently) by August Krönig in 1856 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857. Equation The state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern form of the equation relates these simply in two main forms. The temperature used in the equation of state is an absolute temperature: the appropria ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Van Der Waals Equation
In chemistry and thermodynamics, the Van der Waals equation (or Van der Waals equation of state) is an equation of state which extends the ideal gas law to include the effects of interaction between molecules of a gas, as well as accounting for the finite size of the molecules. The ideal gas law treats gas molecules as point particles that interact with their containers but not each other, meaning they neither take up space nor change kinetic energy during collisions (i.e. all collisions are perfectly elastic). The ideal gas law states that the volume ''V'' occupied by ''n'' moles of any gas has a pressure ''P'' at temperature ''T'' given by the following relationship, where ''R'' is the gas constant: :PV=nRT To account for the volume occupied by real gas molecules, the Van der Waals equation replaces V/n in the ideal gas law with (V_mb), where ''Vm'' is the molar volume of the gas and ''b'' is the volume occupied by the molecules of one mole: :P(V_m  b)=R T The second m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

PrenticeHall
Prentice Hall was an American major educational publisher owned by Savvas Learning Company. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6–12 and highereducation market, and distributes its technical titles through the Safari Books Online ereference service. History On October 13, 1913, law professor Charles Gerstenberg and his student Richard Ettinger founded Prentice Hall. Gerstenberg and Ettinger took their mothers' maiden names, Prentice and Hall, to name their new company. Prentice Hall became known as a publisher of trade books by authors such as Norman Vincent Peale; elementary, secondary, and college textbooks; looseleaf information services; and professional books. Prentice Hall acquired the training provider Deltak in 1979. Prentice Hall was acquired by Gulf+Western in 1984, and became part of that company's publishing division Simon & Schuster. S&S sold several Prentice Hall subsidiaries: Deltak and Resource Systems were sold to National Education ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Wiley & Sons
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., commonly known as Wiley (), is an American multinational publishing company founded in 1807 that focuses on academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books, journals, and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, and educational materials for undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education students. History The company was established in 1807 when Charles Wiley opened a print shop in Manhattan. The company was the publisher of 19th century American literary figures like James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal, religious, and other nonfiction titles. The firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley later shifted its focus to scientific, technical, and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests. Wiley's son John (born in Flatbush, New York, October 4, 1808; died in East Orange, New Je ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

GayLussac's Law
GayLussac's law usually refers to JosephLouis GayLussac's law of combining volumes of gases, discovered in 1808 and published in 1809. It sometimes refers to the proportionality of the volume of a gas to its absolute temperature at constant pressure. This law was published by GayLussac in 1802, and in the article in which he described his work he cited earlier unpublished work from the 1780s by Jacques Charles. Consequently, the volumetemperature proportionality is usually known as Charles's Law. Law of combining volumes The law of combining volumes states that, when gases react together they do so in volume which bears simple whole number ratio provided that the temperature and pressure of the reacting gases and their products remain constant The ratio between the volumes of the reactant gases and the gaseous products can be expressed in simple whole numbers. For example, GayLussac found that two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen would react to form two vo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boyle's Law
Boyle's law, also referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law (especially in France), is an experimental gas law that describes the relationship between pressure and volume of a confined gas. Boyle's law has been stated as: The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within a closed system.Levine, Ira. N. (1978), p. 12 gives the original definition. Mathematically, Boyle's law can be stated as: or where is the pressure of the gas, is the volume of the gas, and is a constant. Boyle's Law states that when the temperature of a given mass of confined gas is constant, the product of its pressure and volume is also constant. When comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be expressed as: :P_1 V_1 = P_2 V_2. showing that as volume increases, the pressure of a gas decreases proportionally, and vic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ideal Gas Law
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and GayLussac's law. The ideal gas law is often written in an empirical form: pV = nRT where p, V and T are the pressure, volume and temperature; n is the amount of substance; and R is the ideal gas constant. It can also be derived from the microscopic kinetic theory, as was achieved (apparently independently) by August Krönig in 1856 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857. Equation The state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern form of the equation relates these simply in two main forms. The temperature used in the equation of state is an absolute temperature: the appropria ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equation Of State
In physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables, which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature, or internal energy. Most modern equations of state are formulated in the Helmholtz free energy. Equations of state are useful in describing the properties of pure substances and mixtures in liquids, gases, and solid states as well as the state of matter in the interior of stars. Overview At present, there is no single equation of state that accurately predicts the properties of all substances under all conditions. An example of an equation of state correlates densities of gases and liquids to temperatures and pressures, known as the ideal gas law, which is roughly accurate for weakly polar gases at low pressures and moderate temperatures. This equation becomes increasingly inaccurate at higher pressures and lower temperatures, and fails to predict ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Compressibility Factor
In thermodynamics, the compressibility factor (Z), also known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factor, describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behaviour. It is simply defined as the ratio of the molar volume of a gas to the molar volume of an ideal gas at the same temperature and pressure. It is a useful thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account for the real gas behaviour.Properties of Natural Gases . Includes a chart of compressibility factors versus reduced pressure and reduced temperature (on last page of the PDF document) In general, deviation from ideal behaviour becomes more significant the closer a gas is to a 

Isotherm Wohl Model
Isotherm may refer to: * Isotherm (contour line) a type of equal temperature at a given date or time on a geographic map * Isotherm in thermodynamics, a curve on a PV diagram for an isothermal process * Moisture sorption isotherm a curve giving the functional relationship between humidity and equilibrium water content of a material for a constant temperature * Sorption isotherm Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface. This process creates a film of the ''adsorbate'' on the surface of the ''adsorbent''. This process differs from absorption, in which a fl ... a curve giving the functional relationship between adsorbate and adsorbent in a constanttemperature adsorption process {{disambig cs:Izotermický děj#Izoterma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Peng–Robinson Equation Of State
Cubic equations of state are a specific class of thermodynamic models for modeling the pressure of a gas as a function of temperature and density and which can be rewritten as a cubic function of the molar volume. Equations of state are generally applied in the fields of physical chemistry and chemical engineering, particularly in the modeling of vapor–liquid equilibrium and chemical engineering process design. Van der Waals equation of state The van der Waals equation of state may be written as : \left(p + \frac\right)\left(V_\text  b\right) = RT where T is the absolute temperature, p is the pressure, V_\text is the molar volume and R is the universal gas constant. Note that V_\text = V / n, where V is the volume, and n=N/N_\text, where n is the number of moles, N is the number of particles, and N_\text is the Avogadro constant. These definitions apply to all equations of state below as well. The substancespecific constants a and b can be calculated from the critical pr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 