Rank (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. p. 48, § 1.16 This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of . This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the " nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by . There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics. The rank is commonly denoted by or ; sometimes the parentheses are not written, as in .Alternative notation includes \rho (\Phi) from and . Main definitions In this section, we give some definitions of the rank of a matrix. Many definitions are possible; see Alternative definitions for several of these. The column rank of is the dimension of the column space of , while the row rank of is the dimension of the row space of . A fundamental result in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and fields of engineering, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and computing efficiently with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, it is often used for dealing with firstorder approximations, using the fact that the differential of a multivariate function at a point is the linear ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transpose
In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal; that is, it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix, often denoted by (among other notations). The transpose of a matrix was introduced in 1858 by the British mathematician Arthur Cayley. In the case of a logical matrix representing a binary relation R, the transpose corresponds to the converse relation RT. Transpose of a matrix Definition The transpose of a matrix , denoted by , , , A^, , , or , may be constructed by any one of the following methods: # Reflect over its main diagonal (which runs from topleft to bottomright) to obtain #Write the rows of as the columns of #Write the columns of as the rows of Formally, the th row, th column element of is the th row, th column element of : :\left mathbf^\operatorname\right = \left mathbf\right. If is an matrix, then is an matrix. In the case of square matrices, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Matrix
In linear algebra, the identity matrix of size n is the n\times n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. Terminology and notation The identity matrix is often denoted by I_n, or simply by I if the size is immaterial or can be trivially determined by the context. I_1 = \begin 1 \end ,\ I_2 = \begin 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end ,\ I_3 = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end ,\ \dots ,\ I_n = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \end. The term unit matrix has also been widely used, but the term ''identity matrix'' is now standard. The term ''unit matrix'' is ambiguous, because it is also used for a matrix of ones and for any unit of the ring of all n\times n matrices. In some fields, such as group theory or quantum mechanics, the identity matrix is sometimes denoted by a boldface one, \mathbf, or called "id" (short for identity). ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Reduced Row Echelon Form
In linear algebra, a matrix is in echelon form if it has the shape resulting from a Gaussian elimination. A matrix being in row echelon form means that Gaussian elimination has operated on the rows, and column echelon form means that Gaussian elimination has operated on the columns. In other words, a matrix is in column echelon form if its transpose is in row echelon form. Therefore, only row echelon forms are considered in the remainder of this article. The similar properties of column echelon form are easily deduced by transposing all the matrices. Specifically, a matrix is in row echelon form if * All rows consisting of only zeroes are at the bottom. * The leading entry (that is the leftmost nonzero entry) of every nonzero row is to the right the leading entry of every row above. Some texts add the condition that the leading coefficient must be 1 while others regard this as ''reduced'' row echelon form. These two conditions imply that all entries in a column below a leadin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaussian Elimination
In mathematics, Gaussian elimination, also known as row reduction, is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations. It consists of a sequence of operations performed on the corresponding matrix of coefficients. This method can also be used to compute the rank of a matrix, the determinant of a square matrix, and the inverse of an invertible matrix. The method is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) although some special cases of the method—albeit presented without proof—were known to Chinese mathematicians as early as circa 179 AD. To perform row reduction on a matrix, one uses a sequence of elementary row operations to modify the matrix until the lower lefthand corner of the matrix is filled with zeros, as much as possible. There are three types of elementary row operations: * Swapping two rows, * Multiplying a row by a nonzero number, * Adding a multiple of one row to another row. (subtraction can be achieved by multiplying one row with 1 and adding ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elementary Row Operation
In mathematics, an elementary matrix is a matrix which differs from the identity matrix by one single elementary row operation. The elementary matrices generate the general linear group GL''n''(F) when F is a field. Left multiplication (premultiplication) by an elementary matrix represents elementary row operations, while right multiplication (postmultiplication) represents elementary column operations. Elementary row operations are used in Gaussian elimination to reduce a matrix to row echelon form. They are also used in Gauss–Jordan elimination to further reduce the matrix to reduced row echelon form. Elementary row operations There are three types of elementary matrices, which correspond to three types of row operations (respectively, column operations): ;Row switching: A row within the matrix can be switched with another row. : R_i \leftrightarrow R_j ;Row multiplication: Each element in a row can be multiplied by a nonzero constant. It is also known as ''scaling'' a r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rankrevealing QR Factorization
An RRQR factorization or rankrevealing QR factorization is a matrix decomposition algorithm based on the QR factorization which can be used to determine the rank of a matrix. The singular value decomposition In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any \ m \times n\ matrix. It is re ... can be used to generate an RRQR, but it is not an efficient method to do so. An RRQR implementation is available in MATLAB. References Matrix decompositions Numerical linear algebra {{Algorithmstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

QR Decomposition
In linear algebra, a QR decomposition, also known as a QR factorization or QU factorization, is a decomposition of a matrix ''A'' into a product ''A'' = ''QR'' of an orthogonal matrix ''Q'' and an upper triangular matrix ''R''. QR decomposition is often used to solve the linear least squares problem and is the basis for a particular eigenvalue algorithm, the QR algorithm. Cases and definitions Square matrix Any real square matrix ''A'' may be decomposed as : A = QR, where ''Q'' is an orthogonal matrix (its columns are orthogonal unit vectors meaning and ''R'' is an upper triangular matrix (also called right triangular matrix). If ''A'' is invertible, then the factorization is unique if we require the diagonal elements of ''R'' to be positive. If instead ''A'' is a complex square matrix, then there is a decomposition ''A'' = ''QR'' where ''Q'' is a unitary matrix (so If ''A'' has ''n'' linearly independent columns, then the first ''n'' columns of ''Q'' form an ortho ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Singular Value Decomposition
In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any \ m \times n\ matrix. It is related to the polar decomposition. Specifically, the singular value decomposition of an \ m \times n\ complex matrix is a factorization of the form \ \mathbf = \mathbf\ , where is an \ m \times m\ complex unitary matrix, \ \mathbf\ is an \ m \times n\ rectangular diagonal matrix with nonnegative real numbers on the diagonal, is an n \times n complex unitary matrix, and \ \mathbf\ is the conjugate transpose of . Such decomposition always exists for any complex matrix. If is real, then and can be guaranteed to be real orthogonal matrices; in such contexts, the SVD is often denoted \ \mathbf^\mathsf\ . The diagonal entries \ \sigma_i = \Sigma_\ of \ \mathbf\ are uniquely determined by and are known as the singular values of . The n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

LU Decomposition
In numerical analysis and linear algebra, lower–upper (LU) decomposition or factorization factors a matrix as the product of a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix (see matrix decomposition). The product sometimes includes a permutation matrix as well. LU decomposition can be viewed as the matrix form of Gaussian elimination. Computers usually solve square systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, and it is also a key step when inverting a matrix or computing the determinant of a matrix. The LU decomposition was introduced by the Polish mathematician Tadeusz Banachiewicz in 1938. Definitions Let ''A'' be a square matrix. An LU factorization refers to the factorization of ''A'', with proper row and/or column orderings or permutations, into two factors – a lower triangular matrix ''L'' and an upper triangular matrix ''U'': : A = LU. In the lower triangular matrix all elements above the diagonal are zero, in the upper triangular matrix, all the e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Floating Point
In computing, floatingpoint arithmetic (FP) is arithmetic that represents real numbers approximately, using an integer with a fixed precision, called the significand, scaled by an integer exponent of a fixed base. For example, 12.345 can be represented as a baseten floatingpoint number: 12.345 = \underbrace_\text \times \underbrace_\text\!\!\!\!\!\!^ In practice, most floatingpoint systems use base two, though base ten (decimal floating point) is also common. The term ''floating point'' refers to the fact that the number's radix point can "float" anywhere to the left, right, or between the significant digits of the number. This position is indicated by the exponent, so floating point can be considered a form of scientific notation. A floatingpoint system can be used to represent, with a fixed number of digits, numbers of very different orders of magnitude — such as the number of meters between galaxies or between protons in an atom. For this reason, floatingpoin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 