Range Of A Function
In mathematics, the range of a function may refer to either of two closely related concepts: * The codomain of the function * The image of the function Given two sets and , a binary relation between and is a (total) function (from to ) if for every in there is exactly one in such that relates to . The sets and are called domain and codomain of , respectively. The image of is then the subset of consisting of only those elements of such that there is at least one in with . Terminology As the term "range" can have different meanings, it is considered a good practice to define it the first time it is used in a textbook or article. Older books, when they use the word "range", tend to use it to mean what is now called the codomain. More modern books, if they use the word "range" at all, generally use it to mean what is now called the image. To avoid any confusion, a number of modern books don't use the word "range" at all. Elaboration and example Given a functi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Codomain2
In mathematics, the codomain or set of destination of a function is the set into which all of the output of the function is constrained to fall. It is the set in the notation . The term range is sometimes ambiguously used to refer to either the codomain or image of a function. A codomain is part of a function if is defined as a triple where is called the ''domain'' of , its ''codomain'', and its ''graph''. The set of all elements of the form , where ranges over the elements of the domain , is called the ''image'' of . The image of a function is a subset of its codomain so it might not coincide with it. Namely, a function that is not surjective has elements in its codomain for which the equation does not have a solution. A codomain is not part of a function if is defined as just a graph. For example in set theory it is desirable to permit the domain of a function to be a proper class , in which case there is formally no such thing as a triple . With such a defi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Image (mathematics)
In mathematics, the image of a function is the set of all output values it may produce. More generally, evaluating a given function f at each element of a given subset A of its domain produces a set, called the "image of A under (or through) f". Similarly, the inverse image (or preimage) of a given subset B of the codomain of f, is the set of all elements of the domain that map to the members of B. Image and inverse image may also be defined for general binary relations, not just functions. Definition The word "image" is used in three related ways. In these definitions, f : X \to Y is a function from the set X to the set Y. Image of an element If x is a member of X, then the image of x under f, denoted f(x), is the value of f when applied to x. f(x) is alternatively known as the output of f for argument x. Given y, the function f is said to "" or "" if there exists some x in the function's domain such that f(x) = y. Similarly, given a set S, f is said to "" if there exi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graduate Texts In Mathematics
Graduate Texts in Mathematics (GTM) (ISSN 00725285) is a series of graduatelevel textbooks in mathematics published by SpringerVerlag. The books in this series, like the other SpringerVerlag mathematics series, are yellow books of a standard size (with variable numbers of pages). The GTM series is easily identified by a white band at the top of the book. The books in this series tend to be written at a more advanced level than the similar Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics series, although there is a fair amount of overlap between the two series in terms of material covered and difficulty level. List of books #''Introduction to Axiomatic Set Theory'', Gaisi Takeuti, Wilson M. Zaring (1982, 2nd ed., ) #''Measure and Category – A Survey of the Analogies between Topological and Measure Spaces'', John C. Oxtoby (1980, 2nd ed., ) #''Topological Vector Spaces'', H. H. Schaefer, M. P. Wolff (1999, 2nd ed., ) #''A Course in Homological Algebra'', Peter Hilton, Urs Stammbac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Undergraduate Texts In Mathematics
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics (UTM) (ISSN 01726056) is a series of undergraduatelevel textbooks in mathematics published by SpringerVerlag. The books in this series, like the other SpringerVerlag mathematics series, are small yellow books of a standard size. The books in this series tend to be written at a more elementary level than the similar Graduate Texts in Mathematics series, although there is a fair amount of overlap between the two series in terms of material covered and difficulty level. There is no SpringerVerlag numbering of the books like in the Graduate Texts in Mathematics Graduate Texts in Mathematics (GTM) (ISSN 00725285) is a series of graduatelevel textbooks in mathematics published by SpringerVerlag. The books in this series, like the other SpringerVerlag mathematics series, are yellow books of a standard s ... series. The books are numbered here by year of publication. List of books # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Essential Range
In mathematics, particularly measure theory, the essential range, or the set of essential values, of a function is intuitively the 'nonnegligible' range of the function: It does not change between two functions that are equal almost everywhere. One way of thinking of the essential range of a function is the set on which the range of the function is 'concentrated'. Formal definition Let (X,,\mu) be a measure space, and let (Y,) be a topological space. For any (,\sigma())measurable f:X\to Y, we say the essential range of f to mean the set :\operatorname(f) = \left\. Equivalently, \operatorname(f)=\operatorname(f_*\mu), where f_*\mu is the pushforward measure onto \sigma() of \mu under f and \operatorname(f_*\mu) denotes the support of f_*\mu. Essential values We sometimes use the phrase "essential value of f" to mean an element of the essential range of f. Special cases of common interest ''Y'' = C Say (Y,) is \mathbb C equipped with its usual topology. Then the essential range ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bijection, Injection And Surjection
In mathematics, injections, surjections, and bijections are classes of functions distinguished by the manner in which ''arguments'' (input expressions from the domain) and ''images'' (output expressions from the codomain) are related or ''mapped to'' each other. A function maps elements from its domain to elements in its codomain. Given a function f \colon X \to Y: *The function is injective, or onetoone, if each element of the codomain is mapped to by ''at most'' one element of the domain, or equivalently, if distinct elements of the domain map to distinct elements in the codomain. An injective function is also called an injection. Notationally: ::\forall x, x' \in X, f(x) = f(x') \implies x = x', :or, equivalently (using logical transposition), ::\forall x,x' \in X, x \neq x' \implies f(x) \neq f(x'). *The function is surjective, or onto, if each element of the codomain is mapped to by ''at least'' one element of the domain. That is, the image and the codomain of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real number ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Analysis
In mathematics, the branch of real analysis studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions. Some particular properties of realvalued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis is distinguished from complex analysis, which deals with the study of complex numbers and their functions. Scope Construction of the real numbers The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set (\mathbb), together with two binary operations denoted and , and an order denoted . The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique ''complete ordered field'', in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness means ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Element (mathematics)
In mathematics, an element (or member) of a set is any one of the distinct objects that belong to that set. Sets Writing A = \ means that the elements of the set are the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Sets of elements of , for example \, are subsets of . Sets can themselves be elements. For example, consider the set B = \. The elements of are ''not'' 1, 2, 3, and 4. Rather, there are only three elements of , namely the numbers 1 and 2, and the set \. The elements of a set can be anything. For example, C = \ is the set whose elements are the colors , and . Notation and terminology The relation "is an element of", also called set membership, is denoted by the symbol "∈". Writing :x \in A means that "''x'' is an element of ''A''". Equivalent expressions are "''x'' is a member of ''A''", "''x'' belongs to ''A''", "''x'' is in ''A''" and "''x'' lies in ''A''". The expressions "''A'' includes ''x''" and "''A'' contains ''x''" are also used to mea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subset
In mathematics, Set (mathematics), set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all Element (mathematics), elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra (structure), Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by Intersection (set theory), intersection and Union (set theory), union, and the subset relation itself is the Inclusion (Boolean algebra), Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain Of A Function
In mathematics, the domain of a function is the set of inputs accepted by the function. It is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(f) or \operatornamef, where is the function. More precisely, given a function f\colon X\to Y, the domain of is . Note that in modern mathematical language, the domain is part of the definition of a function rather than a property of it. In the special case that and are both subsets of \R, the function can be graphed in the Cartesian coordinate system. In this case, the domain is represented on the axis of the graph, as the projection of the graph of the function onto the axis. For a function f\colon X\to Y, the set is called the codomain, and the set of values attained by the function (which is a subset of ) is called its range or image. Any function can be restricted to a subset of its domain. The restriction of f \colon X \to Y to A, where A\subseteq X, is written as \left. f \_A \colon A \to Y. Natural domain If a real function is giv ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 