Quotient Of A Formal Language
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Quotient Of A Formal Language
In mathematics and computer science, the right quotient (or simply quotient) of a language L_1 with respect to language L_2 is the language consisting of strings ''w'' such that ''wx'' is in L_1 for some string ''x'' in Formally: L_1 / L_2 = \ In other words, we take all the strings in L_1 that have a suffix in L_2, and remove this suffix. Similarly, the left quotient of L_1 with respect to L_2 is the language consisting of strings ''w'' such that ''xw'' is in L_1 for some string ''x'' in L_2. Formally: L_2 \backslash L_1 = \ In other words, we take all the strings in L_1 that have a prefix in L_2, and remove this prefix. Note that the operands of \backslash are in reverse order: the first operand is L_2 and L_1 is second. Example Consider L_1 = \ and L_2 = \. Now, if we insert a divider into an element of L_1, the part on the right is in L_2 only if the divider is placed adjacent to a ''b'' (in which case ''i'' ≤ ''n'' and ''j'' = ''n'') or adjacent to ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Computer Science
Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to practical disciplines (including the design and implementation of hardware and software). Computer science is generally considered an area of academic research and distinct from computer programming. Algorithms and data structures are central to computer science. The theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them. The fields of cryptography and computer security involve studying the means for secure communication and for preventing security vulnerabilities. Computer graphics and computational geometry address the generation of images. Programming language theory considers different ways to describe computational processes, and database theory concerns the management of repositories o ...
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Formal Language
In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of words whose letters are taken from an alphabet and are well-formed according to a specific set of rules. The alphabet of a formal language consists of symbols, letters, or tokens that concatenate into strings of the language. Each string concatenated from symbols of this alphabet is called a word, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called ''well-formed words'' or '' well-formed formulas''. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar such as a regular grammar or context-free grammar, which consists of its formation rules. In computer science, formal languages are used among others as the basis for defining the grammar of programming languages and formalized versions of subsets of natural languages in which the words of the language represent concepts that are associated with particular meanings or semantics. In computational compl ...
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String (computer Science)
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and the length changed, or it may be fixed (after creation). A string is generally considered as a data type and is often implemented as an array data structure of bytes (or words) that stores a sequence of elements, typically characters, using some character encoding. ''String'' may also denote more general arrays or other sequence (or list) data types and structures. Depending on the programming language and precise data type used, a variable declared to be a string may either cause storage in memory to be statically allocated for a predetermined maximum length or employ dynamic allocation to allow it to hold a variable number of elements. When a string appears literally in source code, it is known as a string literal or an anonymous string. In formal languages, which are used in ma ...
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Regular Language
In theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a regular language (also called a rational language) is a formal language that can be defined by a regular expression, in the strict sense in theoretical computer science (as opposed to many modern regular expressions engines, which are augmented with features that allow recognition of non-regular languages). Alternatively, a regular language can be defined as a language recognized by a finite automaton. The equivalence of regular expressions and finite automata is known as Kleene's theorem (after American mathematician Stephen Cole Kleene). In the Chomsky hierarchy, regular languages are the languages generated by Type-3 grammars. Formal definition The collection of regular languages over an alphabet Σ is defined recursively as follows: * The empty language Ø is a regular language. * For each ''a'' ∈ Σ (''a'' belongs to Σ), the singleton language is a regular language. * If ''A'' is a regular language, ''A'' ...
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Context Free Language
In formal language theory, a context-free language (CFL) is a language generated by a context-free grammar (CFG). Context-free languages have many applications in programming languages, in particular, most arithmetic expressions are generated by context-free grammars. Background Context-free grammar Different context-free grammars can generate the same context-free language. Intrinsic properties of the language can be distinguished from extrinsic properties of a particular grammar by comparing multiple grammars that describe the language. Automata The set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata, which makes these languages amenable to parsing. Further, for a given CFG, there is a direct way to produce a pushdown automaton for the grammar (and thereby the corresponding language), though going the other way (producing a grammar given an automaton) is not as direct. Examples An example context-free language is L = \, the ...
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Recursively Enumerable
In computability theory, a set ''S'' of natural numbers is called computably enumerable (c.e.), recursively enumerable (r.e.), semidecidable, partially decidable, listable, provable or Turing-recognizable if: *There is an algorithm such that the set of input numbers for which the algorithm halts is exactly ''S''. Or, equivalently, *There is an algorithm that enumerates the members of ''S''. That means that its output is simply a list of all the members of ''S'': ''s''1, ''s''2, ''s''3, ... . If ''S'' is infinite, this algorithm will run forever. The first condition suggests why the term ''semidecidable'' is sometimes used. More precisely, if a number is in the set, one can ''decide'' this by running the algorithm, but if the number is not in the set, the algorithm runs forever, and no information is returned. A set that is "completely decidable" is a computable set. The second condition suggests why ''computably enumerable'' is used. The abbreviations c.e. and r.e. are oft ...
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Brzozowski Derivative
In theoretical computer science, in particular in formal language theory, the Brzozowski derivative u^S of a set S of strings and a string u is the set of all strings obtainable from a string in S by cutting off the prefix u, as illustrated in the figure. Formally: u^S = \. It was introduced under various different names since the late 1950s. Today it is named after the computer scientist Janusz Brzozowski who investigated its properties and gave an algorithm to compute the derivative of a generalized regular expression. Definition Even though originally studied for regular expressions, the definition applies to arbitrary formal languages. Given any formal language S over an alphabet \Sigma and any string u \in \Sigma^*, the derivative of S with respect to u is defined as: :u^S = \ The Brzozowski derivative is a special case of left quotient by a singleton set containing only u: \ u^S = \ \;\backslash\; S. Equivalently, for all u,v \in \Sigma^*: :v \in u^S \;\Leftrighta ...
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