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Qiangtang Terrane
[[File:2_2_himal_tecto_units.png|Tectonic map of the Himalaya, modified after . Red is Transhimalaya. Green is Indus-Yarlung suture zone, north of which lies Lhasa terrane, follow by Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone and then Qiangtang terrane. The Qiantang terrane is one of three main west-east-trending [[terranes of the [[Tibetan Plateau. During the Triassic, a southward-directed subduction along its northern margin resulted in the Jin-Shajing suture, the limit between it and the Songpan-Ganzi terrane. During the Jurassic, the Lhasa terrane merged with its southern margin along the Bangong suture. This suture, the closure of part of the Tethys Ocean, transformed the Qiantang terrane into a large-scale anticline. The Qiantang terrane is now located at above sea level, but the timing of this uplift remains debated, with estimates ranging from the Pliocene-Pleistocene (3–5 ) to the Eocene (35 Mya) when the plateau was first denudated. See also Qiangtang terrane related ( ...
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Denudation
, Brazil: Cabo Frio Island and Itaúna Body. In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth's surface by moving water, by ice, by wind, and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes. Endogenous processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and tectonic uplift and expose continental crust to the exogenous processes of weathering, of erosion, and of mass wasting. Processes Denudation incorporates the mechanical, biological and chemical processes of erosion, weathering and mass wasting. Denudation can involve the removal of both solid particles and dissolved material. These include sub-processes of cryofracture, insolation weathering, slaking, salt weathering, bioturbation and anthropogenic impacts. Factors affecting denudation include: * Anthropogenic activity * Biosphere * Climate (most directly in chemical weathering) * Geology * Surface topography * Tectonic activity Rates Modern denudation ...
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Geology Of Tibet
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other Earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated Earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demon ...
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Earth And Planetary Science Letters
''Earth and Planetary Science Letters'' (EPSL) is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones. Topics covered range from deep planetary interiors to atmospheres. The journal was established in 1966 and is published by Elsevier. The co-editors-in-chief are J. Adkins (California Institute of Technology), J.P. Avouac (California Institute of Technology), R. Bendick (University of Montana), L. Derry (Cornell University), M. Ishii (Harvard University), T.A. Mather (University of Oxford), W.B. McKinnon (Washington University in St. Louis), F. Moynier (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris), Chiara Maria Petrone, Hans Thybo (Istanbul Technical University and University of Oslo), Alexander Webb. Abstracting and indexing The journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 4.581. References ...
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Contributions To Mineralogy And Petrology
''Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology'' is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media since 1947, publishing both subscription and open access articles. The journal is a hybrid open-access journal. The journal accepts high quality research papers in the fields of igneous and metamorphic petrology, geochemistry and mineralogy. Subjects covered Topical coverage includes major element, trace element and isotope geochemistry, geochronology, experimental petrology, igneous and metamorphic petrology, mineralogy, major and trace element mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modeling of petrologic and geochemical processes. Abstracting and indexing This journal is indexed in the following databases: *Science Citation Index Expanded *Current Contents - Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences *Chemical Abstracts *VINITI Impact In 2018, the journal had an impact factor of Impact Factor 3.23 (current ranking to be updated). References {{Reflist Catego ...
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High Pressure Metamorphic Terranes Along The Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone
High pressure terranes along the ~1200 km long east-west trending Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNS) on the Tibetan Plateau have been extensively mapped and studied. Understanding the geodynamic processes in which these terranes are created is key to understanding the development and subsequent deformation of the BNS and Eurasian deformation as a whole. Introduction With an average elevation of just above 5,000 m, the Tibetan Plateau is the largest elevated region on Earth. Explaining how such a large area (2.5 million km2) can have such high elevations has perplexed geologists for some time. It is known that significant tectonic activity took place before the Indo-Asian collision as terranes were being accreted onto the Eurasian plate during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, but the extent of deformation and the influence these earlier tectonic events had on the subsequent evolution of the Tibetan Plateau is poorly understood. In search of clues, geologists have looked to the ...
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Karakoram Fault System
The Karakoram fault is an oblique-slip fault system in the Himalayan region across India and Asia. The slip along the fault accommodates radial expansion of the Himalayan arc, northward indentation of the Pamir Mountains, and eastward lateral extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. Current plate motions suggest that the convergence between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate is around 44±5 mm per year in the western Himalaya-Pamir region and approximately 50±2 mm per year in the eastern Himalayan region. Origin The creation of the Karakoram fault started with the closing of the ancient Tethys ocean seaway which once separated the two modern continents of Asia and India. The Karakoram fault itself does not trace a plate boundary, except for where it possibly ends in the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone. The original thrusting occurred by linking existing thrust faults in what is now the Pamir Mountains starting between 17 and 20 million years ago. Evolution The Karakoram fault wa ...
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Transhimalaya
The Transhimalaya (also spelled Trans-Himalaya), or "Gangdise – Nyenchen Tanglha range", is a mountain range in China, extending in a west–east direction parallel to the main Himalayan range. Located north of Yarlung Tsangpo river on the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, the Transhimalaya is composed of the Gangdise range to the west and the Nyenchen Tanglha range to the east. The name ''Trans-Himalaya'' was introduced by the Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in early 20th century. The Trans-Himalaya was described by the ''Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer'' in 1952 as an "ill-defined mountain area" with "no marked crest line or central alignment and no division by rivers." On more-modern maps the Kailas Range (Gangdise or Kang-to-sé Shan) in the west is shown as distinct from the Nyenchen Tanglha range in the east. Gallery Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone.png | thumb |Location of Transhimalaya which includes Lhasa Terrane. In the north, Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone separates Transhi ...
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Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone
Location of Mt. Kailash. Indus-Yarlung Zangbo suture zone, the Yarlung Tsangpo River is sometimes called upper [[Brahmaputra River. The Indus-Yarlung suture zone or the Indus-Yarlung Tsangpo suture is a tectonic [[Suture (geology)|suture in southern [[Tibet and across the north margin of the [[Himalayas which resulted from the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate starting about 52 Ma. The north side of the suture zone is the Ladakh Batholith of the Karakoram-Lhasa Block. The rocks of the suture zone consist of an ophiolite mélanges composed of Neotethys oceanic crustal flyschs and ophiolites; the Dras Volcanics: which are basalts, dacites and minor radiolarian cherts – the remains of a mid- to late Mesozoic volcanic island arc; and the Indus Molasse which are an Eocene or later continental clastic sediments. The ophiolite which can be found here is not a remnant of a very big ocean, but of a small back-arc basin structure. See also * References Categ ...
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Geology Of The Himalaya
The geology of the Himalayas is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of the immense mountain range formed by plate tectonic forces and sculpted by weathering and erosion. The Himalayas, which stretch over 2400 km between the Namcha Barwa syntaxis in Tibet and the Nanga Parbat syntaxis in Kashmir, are the result of an ongoing orogeny — the collision of the continental crust of two tectonic plates namely the Indian Plate thrusting into the Eurasian Plate. The Himalaya-Tibet region supplies fresh water for more than one-fifth of the world population, and accounts for a quarter of the global sedimentary budget. Topographically, the belt has many superlatives: the highest rate of uplift (nearly 10 mm/year at Nanga Parbat), the highest relief (8848 m at Mt. Everest Chomolangma), among the highest erosion rates at 2–12 mm/yr, the source of some of the greatest rivers and the highest concentration of glaciers outside of the polar regions. This last ...
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Orogeny
An orogeny is an event that leads to both structural deformation and compositional differentiation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) at convergent plate margins. An orogen or orogenic belt develops when a continental plate crumples and is uplifted to form one or more mountain ranges; this involves a series of geological processes collectively called orogenesis. A synorogenic event is one that occurs during an orogeny. Orogeny is the primary mechanism by which mountains are built on continents. The word "orogeny" () comes from Ancient Greek (, , + , , ). Although it was used before him, the term was employed by the American geologist G.K. Gilbert in 1890 to describe the process of mountain-building as distinguished from epeirogeny. Physiography of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate to form an accretionary orogen. (example: the Andes) File:Continental-continental convergence Fig21contcont.gif|[[Continental collision of two continental plates to ...
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Anticline
visible at far right). Note the man standing in front of the formation, for scale. New Jersey, U.S.A. In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core, whereas a syncline is the inverse of a anticline. A typical anticline is convex up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the curvature is greatest, and the limbs are the sides of the fold that dip away from the hinge. Anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold. Therefore, if age relationships between various rock strata are unknown, the term antiform should be used. The progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a geologic map. These formations occur because anticlinal ridges typically develop above thrust faults during crustal deformations. The upl ...
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Tethys Ocean
250px|First phase of the Tethys Ocean's forming: the (first) Tethys Sea starts dividing Pangaea into two supercontinents, [[Laurasia and [[Gondwana">Laurasia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Pangaea into two supercontinents, [[Laurasia">Pangaea into two supercontinents, [[Laurasia and [[Gondwana. The Tethys Ocean ( el|Τηθύς ''Tēthús''), also called the Tethys Sea or the Neo-Tethys, was an ocean during much of the [[Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period. Etymology The name stems from the mythological Greek sea goddess Tethys, who was a sister and consort of Oceanus and the mother of the great rivers, lakes and fountains of the world and of the Oceanid sea nymphs. Terminology and subdivisions The eastern part of the Tethys Ocean is sometimes referred to as Eastern Tethys. The western part of the Tethys Ocean is called Tethys ...
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Bangong Suture
The Bangong suture zone is approximately 1200 km long and trends in an east–west orientation, and a key location in the central Tibet conjugate fault zone. Located in central Tibet between the Lhasa (southern block) and Qiangtang (northern block) terranes, it is a discontinuous belt of ophiolites and mélange that is 10–20 km wide, up to 50 km wide in places. The northern part of the fault zone consists of northeast striking sinistral strike-slip faults while the southern part consists of northwest striking right lateral strike-slip faults. These conjugate faults to the north and south of the Bangong intersect with each other along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. Description The Bangong-Nujiang Suture is a ~1200 km long east-west trending zone that separates the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes. It can be divided into three parts: Bangong Lake-Gertse (western sector), Dongqiao-Amdo (middle sector), and Dingqing-Nujiang (eastern sector). During the Middle to La ...
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