Product (category Theory)
In category theory, the product of two (or more) objects in a category is a notion designed to capture the essence behind constructions in other areas of mathematics such as the Cartesian product of sets, the direct product of groups or rings, and the product of topological spaces. Essentially, the product of a family of objects is the "most general" object which admits a morphism to each of the given objects. Definition Product of two objects Fix a category C. Let X_1 and X_2 be objects of C. A product of X_1 and X_2 is an object X, typically denoted X_1 \times X_2, equipped with a pair of morphisms \pi_1 : X \to X_1, \pi_2 : X \to X_2 satisfying the following universal property: * For every object Y and every pair of morphisms f_1 : Y \to X_1, f_2 : Y \to X_2, there exists a unique morphism f : Y \to X_1 \times X_2 such that the following diagram commutes: *: Whether a product exists may depend on C or on X_1 and X_2. If it does exist, it is unique up to canonical isomor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism compos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Index Set
In mathematics, an index set is a set whose members label (or index) members of another set. For instance, if the elements of a set may be ''indexed'' or ''labeled'' by means of the elements of a set , then is an index set. The indexing consists of a surjective function from onto , and the indexed collection is typically called an '' (indexed) family'', often written as . Examples *An enumeration of a set gives an index set J \sub \N, where is the particular enumeration of . *Any countably infinite set can be (injectively) indexed by the set of natural numbers \N. *For r \in \R, the indicator function on is the function \mathbf_r\colon \R \to \ given by \mathbf_r (x) := \begin 0, & \mbox x \ne r \\ 1, & \mbox x = r. \end The set of all such indicator functions, \_ , is an uncountable set indexed by \mathbb. Other uses In computational complexity theory and cryptography, an index set is a set for which there exists an algorithm that can sample the set efficiently; e. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Product Topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the Cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology. This topology differs from another, perhaps more naturalseeming, topology called the box topology, which can also be given to a product space and which agrees with the product topology when the product is over only finitely many spaces. However, the product topology is "correct" in that it makes the product space a categorical product of its factors, whereas the box topology is too fine; in that sense the product topology is the natural topology on the Cartesian product. Definition Throughout, I will be some nonempty index set and for every index i \in I, let X_i be a topological space. Denote the Cartesian product of the sets X_i by X := \prod X_ := \prod_ X_i and for every index i \in I, denote the ith by \begin p_i :\;&& \prod_ X_j &&\;\to\; & X_i \\ .3ex && \left(x_j\r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Topological Spaces
In mathematics, the category of topological spaces, often denoted Top, is the category whose objects are topological spaces and whose morphisms are continuous maps. This is a category because the composition of two continuous maps is again continuous, and the identity function is continuous. The study of Top and of properties of topological spaces using the techniques of category theory is known as categorical topology. N.B. Some authors use the name Top for the categories with topological manifolds, with compactly generated spaces as objects and continuous maps as morphisms or with the category of compactly generated weak Hausdorff spaces. As a concrete category Like many categories, the category Top is a concrete category, meaning its objects are sets with additional structure (i.e. topologies) and its morphisms are functions preserving this structure. There is a natural forgetful functor :''U'' : Top → Set to the category of sets which assigns to each topological spa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Sets
In the mathematical field of category theory, the category of sets, denoted as Set, is the category whose objects are sets. The arrows or morphisms between sets ''A'' and ''B'' are the total functions from ''A'' to ''B'', and the composition of morphisms is the composition of functions. Many other categories (such as the category of groups, with group homomorphisms as arrows) add structure to the objects of the category of sets and/or restrict the arrows to functions of a particular kind. Properties of the category of sets The axioms of a category are satisfied by Set because composition of functions is associative, and because every set ''X'' has an identity function id''X'' : ''X'' → ''X'' which serves as identity element for function composition. The epimorphisms in Set are the surjective maps, the monomorphisms are the injective maps, and the isomorphisms are the bijective maps. The empty set serves as the initial object in Set with empty functions as morphisms. Every s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Morphism
In mathematics, more specifically in category theory, a universal property is a property that characterizes up to an isomorphism the result of some constructions. Thus, universal properties can be used for defining some objects independently from the method chosen for constructing them. For example, the definitions of the integers from the natural numbers, of the rational numbers from the integers, of the real numbers from the rational numbers, and of polynomial rings from the field of their coefficients can all be done in terms of universal properties. In particular, the concept of universal property allows a simple proof that all constructions of real numbers are equivalent: it suffices to prove that they satisfy the same universal property. Technically, a universal property is defined in terms of categories and functors by mean of a universal morphism (see , below). Universal morphisms can also be thought more abstractly as initial or terminal objects of a comma category ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ordered Pair
In mathematics, an ordered pair (''a'', ''b'') is a pair of objects. The order in which the objects appear in the pair is significant: the ordered pair (''a'', ''b'') is different from the ordered pair (''b'', ''a'') unless ''a'' = ''b''. (In contrast, the unordered pair equals the unordered pair .) Ordered pairs are also called 2tuples, or sequences (sometimes, lists in a computer science context) of length 2. Ordered pairs of scalars are sometimes called 2dimensional vectors. (Technically, this is an abuse of terminology since an ordered pair need not be an element of a vector space.) The entries of an ordered pair can be other ordered pairs, enabling the recursive definition of ordered ''n''tuples (ordered lists of ''n'' objects). For example, the ordered triple (''a'',''b'',''c'') can be defined as (''a'', (''b'',''c'')), i.e., as one pair nested in another. In the ordered pair (''a'', ''b''), the object ''a'' is called the ''first entry'', and the object ''b'' the '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diagonal Functor
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the diagonal functor \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal \times \mathcal is given by \Delta(a) = \langle a,a \rangle, which maps objects as well as morphisms. This functor can be employed to give a succinct alternate description of the product of objects ''within'' the category \mathcal: a product a \times b is a universal arrow from \Delta to \langle a,b \rangle. The arrow comprises the projection maps. More generally, given a small index category \mathcal, one may construct the functor category \mathcal^\mathcal, the objects of which are called diagrams. For each object a in \mathcal, there is a constant diagram \Delta_a : \mathcal \to \mathcal that maps every object in \mathcal to a and every morphism in \mathcal to 1_a. The diagonal functor \Delta : \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal^\mathcal assigns to each object a of \mathcal the diagram \Delta_a, and to each morphism f: a \rightarrow b in \mathcal the natural transformation \eta in \m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Product Category
In the mathematical field of category theory, the product of two categories ''C'' and ''D'', denoted and called a product category, is an extension of the concept of the Cartesian product of two sets. Product categories are used to define bifunctors and multifunctors. Definition The product category has: *as objects: *:pairs of objects , where ''A'' is an object of ''C'' and ''B'' of ''D''; *as arrows from to : *:pairs of arrows , where is an arrow of ''C'' and is an arrow of ''D''; *as composition, componentwise composition from the contributing categories: *:; *as identities, pairs of identities from the contributing categories: *:1(''A'', ''B'') = (1''A'', 1''B''). Relation to other categorical concepts For small categories, this is the same as the action on objects of the categorical product in the category Cat. A functor whose domain is a product category is known as a bifunctor. An important example is the Hom functor, which has the product of the opposite of som ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Construction
Universal is the adjective for universe. Universal may also refer to: Companies * NBCUniversal, a media and entertainment company ** Universal Animation Studios, an American Animation studio, and a subsidiary of NBCUniversal ** Universal TV, a television channel owned by NBCUniversal ** Universal Kids, an American current television channel, formerly known as Sprout, owned by NBCUniversal ** Universal Pictures, an American film studio, and a subsidiary of NBCUniversal ** Universal Television, a television division owned by NBCUniversal Content Studios ** Universal Parks & Resorts, the theme park unit of NBCUniversal * Universal Airlines (other) * Universal Avionics, a manufacturer of flight control components * Universal Corporation, an American tobacco company * Universal Display Corporation, a manufacturer of displays * Universal Edition, a classical music publishing firm, founded in Vienna in 1901 * Universal Entertainment Corporation, a Japanese software producer and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cone (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the cone of a functor is an abstract notion used to define the limit of that functor. Cones make other appearances in category theory as well. Definition Let ''F'' : ''J'' → ''C'' be a diagram in ''C''. Formally, a diagram is nothing more than a functor from ''J'' to ''C''. The change in terminology reflects the fact that we think of ''F'' as indexing a family of objects and morphisms in ''C''. The category ''J'' is thought of as an "index category". One should consider this in analogy with the concept of an indexed family of objects in set theory. The primary difference is that here we have morphisms as well. Thus, for example, when ''J'' is a discrete category, it corresponds most closely to the idea of an indexed family in set theory. Another common and more interesting example takes ''J'' to be a span. ''J'' can also be taken to be the empty category, leading to the simplest cones. Let ''N'' be an object of ''C''. A cone fro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diagram (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a diagram is the categorical analogue of an indexed family in set theory. The primary difference is that in the categorical setting one has morphisms that also need indexing. An indexed family of sets is a collection of sets, indexed by a fixed set; equivalently, a ''function'' from a fixed index ''set'' to the class of ''sets''. A diagram is a collection of objects and morphisms, indexed by a fixed category; equivalently, a ''functor'' from a fixed index ''category'' to some ''category''. The universal functor of a diagram is the diagonal functor; its right adjoint is the limit of the diagram and its left adjoint is the colimit. The natural transformation from the diagonal functor to some arbitrary diagram is called a cone. Definition Formally, a diagram of type ''J'' in a category ''C'' is a ( covariant) functor The category ''J'' is called the index category or the scheme of the diagram ''D''; the functor is sometimes called a ''J' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 