Portfolio (finance)
In finance, a portfolio is a collection of investments. Definition The term “portfolio” refers to any combination of financial assets such as stocks, bonds and cash. Portfolios may be held by individual investors or managed by financial professionals, hedge funds, banks and other financial institutions. It is a generally accepted principle that a portfolio is designed according to the investor's risk tolerance, time frame and investment objectives. The monetary value of each asset may influence the risk/reward ratio of the portfolio. When determining asset allocation, the aim is to maximise the expected return and minimise the risk. This is an example of a multiobjective optimization problem: many efficient solutions are available and the preferred solution must be selected by considering a tradeoff between risk and return. In particular, a portfolio A is dominated by another portfolio A' if A' has a greater expected gain and a lesser risk than A. If no portfolio dominate ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Investment
Investment is the dedication of money to purchase of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance, the purpose of investing is to generate a return from the invested asset. The return may consist of a gain (profit) or a loss realized from the sale of a property or an investment, unrealized capital appreciation (or depreciation), or investment income such as dividends, interest, or rental income, or a combination of capital gain and income. The return may also include currency gains or losses due to changes in the foreign currency exchange rates. Investors generally expect higher returns from riskier investments. When a lowrisk investment is made, the return is also generally low. Similarly, high risk comes with a chance of high losses. Investors, particularly novices, are often advised to diversify their portfolio. Diversification has the statistical effec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arbitrage Pricing Theory
In finance, arbitrage pricing theory (APT) is a multifactor model for asset pricing which relates various macroeconomic (systematic) risk variables to the pricing of financial assets. Proposed by economist Stephen Ross in 1976, it is widely believed to be an improved alternative to its predecessor, the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). APT is founded upon the law of one price, which suggests that within an equilibrium market, rational investors will implement arbitrage such that the equilibrium price is eventually realised. As such, APT argues that when opportunities for arbitrage are exhausted in a given period, then the expected return of an asset is a linear function of various factors or theoretical market indices, where sensitivities of each factor is represented by a factorspecific beta coefficient or factor loading. Consequently, it provides traders with an indication of ‘true’ asset value and enables exploitation of market discrepancies via arbitrage. The linear fac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Investment Management
Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities, including shareholdings, bonds, and other assets, such as real estate, to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of investors. Investors may be institutions, such as insurance companies, pension funds, corporations, charities, educational establishments, or private investors, either directly via investment contracts or, more commonly, via collective investment schemes like mutual funds, exchangetraded funds, or REITs. The term asset management is often used to refer to the management of investment funds, while the more generic term fund management may refer to all forms of institutional investment, as well as investment management for private investors. Investment managers who specialize in ''advisory'' or ''discretionary'' management on behalf of (normally wealthy) private investors may often refer to their services as money management or portfolio management within the context of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infection Ratio
In finance, the infection ratio describes the relationship between nonperforming portfolios and the total loan portfolio. The infection ratio is used to work out the relationship between the nonperforming part of the portfolio (i.e., loans not efficiently being recovered) and the total loan portfolio of a bank or other financial entity. The ratio is used to evaluate infection in the loan portfolio between two different time periods, or amongst various organizations, or against an industry standard. The users of this financial management technique are the central banks/regulators, credit rating agencies A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely principal and interest payments and the likelihood of default. An agency may ra ..., and institutions in the business of giving credit lines/loans. References Financial ratios {{financestub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Capital Asset Pricing Model
In finance, the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset, to make decisions about adding assets to a welldiversified portfolio. The model takes into account the asset's sensitivity to nondiversifiable risk (also known as systematic risk or market risk), often represented by the quantity beta (β) in the financial industry, as well as the expected return of the market and the expected return of a theoretical riskfree asset. CAPM assumes a particular form of utility functions (in which only first and second moments matter, that is risk is measured by variance, for example a quadratic utility) or alternatively asset returns whose probability distributions are completely described by the first two moments (for example, the normal distribution) and zero transaction costs (necessary for diversification to get rid of all idiosyncratic risk). Under these conditions, CAPM shows that the cost of eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Investment Strategy
In finance, an investment strategy is a set of rules, behaviors or procedures, designed to guide an investor's selection of an investment portfolio. Individuals have different profit objectives, and their individual skills make different tactics and strategies appropriate. Some choices involve a tradeoff between risk and return. Most investors fall somewhere in between, accepting some risk for the expectation of higher returns. Investors frequently pick investments to hedge themselves against inflation. During periods of high inflation investments such as shares tend to perform less well in real terms. Time horizon of investments. Investments such as shares should be invested into with the time frame of a minimum of 5 years in mind. It is recommended in finance a minimum of 6 months to 12 months expenses in a rainyday current account, giving instant access before investing in riskier investments than an instant access account. It is also recommended no more than 90% of your money i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Performance Attribution
Performance attribution, or investment performance attribution is a set of techniques that performance analysts use to explain why a portfolio's performance differed from the benchmark. This difference between the portfolio return and the benchmark return is known as the active return. The active return is the component of a portfolio's performance that arises from the fact that the portfolio is actively managed. Different kinds of performance attribution provide different ways of explaining the active return. Attribution analysis attempts to distinguish which of the two factors of portfolio performance, ''superior stock selection'' or ''superior market timing'', is the source of the portfolio's overall performance. Specifically, this method compares the total return of the manager's actual investment holdings with the return for a predetermined benchmark portfolio and decomposes the difference into a ''selection effect'' and an ''allocation effect''. Simple example Consider a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

True Timeweighted Rate Of Return
The timeweighted return (TWR) is a method of calculating investment return. To apply the timeweighted return method, combine the returns over subperiods by compounding them together, resulting in the overall period return. The rate of return over each different subperiod is weighted according to the duration of the subperiod. The timeweighted method differs from other methods of calculating investment return only in the particular way it compensates for external flows  see below. External flows The timeweighted return is a measure of the historical performance of an investment portfolio which compensates for ''external flows''. External flows are net movements of value that result from transfers of cash, securities, or other instruments into or out of the portfolio, with no simultaneous equal and opposite movement of value in the opposite direction, as in the case of a purchase or sale, and that are not income from the investments in the portfolio, such as interest, coupons, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Value At Risk
Value at risk (VaR) is a measure of the risk of loss for investments. It estimates how much a set of investments might lose (with a given probability), given normal market conditions, in a set time period such as a day. VaR is typically used by firms and regulators in the financial industry to gauge the amount of assets needed to cover possible losses. For a given portfolio, time horizon, and probability ''p'', the ''p'' VaR can be defined informally as the maximum possible loss during that time after excluding all worse outcomes whose combined probability is at most ''p''. This assumes marktomarket pricing, and no trading in the portfolio. For example, if a portfolio of stocks has a oneday 95% VaR of $1 million, that means that there is a 0.05 probability that the portfolio will fall in value by more than $1 million over a oneday period if there is no trading. Informally, a loss of $1 million or more on this portfolio is expected on 1 day out of 20 days (because of 5% proba ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sharpe Ratio
In finance, the Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the rewardtovariability ratio) measures the performance of an investment such as a security or portfolio compared to a riskfree asset, after adjusting for its risk. It is defined as the difference between the returns of the investment and the riskfree return, divided by the standard deviation of the investment returns. It represents the additional amount of return that an investor receives per unit of increase in risk. It was named after William F. Sharpe, who developed it in 1966. Definition Since its revision by the original author, William Sharpe, in 1994, the '' exante'' Sharpe ratio is defined as: : S_a = \frac = \frac, where R_a is the asset return, R_b is the riskfree return (such as a U.S. Treasury security). E_aR_b/math> is the expected value of the excess of the asset return over the benchmark return, and is the standard deviation of the asset excess return. The ''expost' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Treynor Ratio
The Treynor reward to volatility model (sometimes called the rewardtovolatility ratio or Treynor measure), named after Jack L. Treynor, is a measurement of the returns earned in excess of that which could have been earned on an investment that has no diversifiable risk (e.g., Treasury bills or a completely diversified portfolio), per unit of market risk assumed. The Treynor ratio relates excess return over the riskfree rate to the additional risk taken; however, systematic risk is used instead of total risk. The higher the Treynor ratio, the better the performance of the portfolio under analysis. Formula :T = \frac where: :T \equiv Treynor ratio, :r_i \equiv portfolio ''is return, :r_f \equiv risk free rate :\beta_i \equiv portfolio ''is beta Example Taking the equation detailed above, let us assume that the expected portfolio return is 20%, the risk free rate is 5%, and the beta of the portfolio is 1.5. Substituting these values, we get the following :T = \frac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jensens Alpha
In finance, Jensen's alpha (or Jensen's Performance Index, expost alpha) is used to determine the abnormal return of a security or portfolio of securities over the theoretical expected return. It is a version of the standard alpha based on a theoretical performance instead of a market index. The security could be any asset, such as stocks, bonds, or derivatives. The theoretical return is predicted by a market model, most commonly the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The market model uses statistical methods to predict the appropriate riskadjusted return of an asset. The CAPM for instance uses beta as a multiplier. History Jensen's alpha was first used as a measure in the evaluation of mutual fund managers by Michael Jensen in 1968. The CAPM return is supposed to be 'risk adjusted', which means it takes account of the relative riskiness of the asset. This is based on the concept that riskier assets should have higher expected returns than less risky assets. If an asset's re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 