Pierre De Fermat
Pierre de Fermat (; between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics. He is best known for his Fermat's principle for light propagation and his Fermat's Last Theorem in number theory, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' '' Arithmetica''. He was also a lawyer at the '' Parlement'' of Toulouse, France. Biography Fermat was born in 1607 in BeaumontdeLomagne, France—the late 15thcentury mansion where Fermat was born is now a museum. He was from Gascony, where his father, Domin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

BeaumontdeLomagne
BeaumontdeLomagne (; Languedocien: ''Bèumont de Lomanha'') is a commune in the TarnetGaronne department in the Occitanie region in southern France. Geography The river Gimone runs through the town. History BeaumontdeLomagne, bastide, was founded in 1276 following the act of coregency between the abbey of Grandselve and King Philip III of France – the King was represented by his seneschal for the former County of Toulouse, Eustache de Beaumarchais. In 1278 the town was granted a very liberal charter of laws, by the standards of the period, defining the rights and duties of its inhabitants. In 1280, work commenced on a large church; its flat apse shows the influence of Cîteaux. The belltower, was made in the fifteenth century and resembles that of SaintSernin in Toulouse. Construction finished around 1430 and the Bishop of Montauban, driven out of his city by the English, made it his episcopal seat until 1432. The Market (place), market hall, in the centre of the to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Things Named After Pierre De Fermat
This is a list of things named after Pierre de Fermat, a French amateur mathematician. *Director circle, Fermat–Apollonius circle *Fermat–Catalan conjecture *Fermat cubic *Fermat curve *Euler's theorem, Fermat–Euler theorem *Fermat number *Fermat point *Weber problem, Fermat–Weber problem *Fermat polygonal number theorem *Diagonal form, Fermat polynomial *Fermat primality test *Fermat pseudoprime *Fermat quintic threefold *Fermat quotient *Difference quotient, Fermat's difference quotient *Fermat's factorization method *Fermat's Last Theorem *Fermat's little theorem *Adequality, Fermat's method *Proof by infinite descent, Fermat's method of descent *Fermat's principle *Fermat's right triangle theorem *Fermat's spiral *Fermat's theorem (stationary points) *Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares *Fermat theory *Pell's equation, Pell–Fermat equation Other *Fermat (computer algebra system) *Fermat (crater) *Fermat Prize {{Pierre de Fermat Lists of things named after ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gascony
Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province of the southwestern Kingdom of France that succeeded the Duchy of Gascony (602–1453). From the 17th century until the French Revolution (1789–1799), it was part of the combined Province of Guyenne and Gascony. The region is vaguely defined, and the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear; by some they are seen to overlap, while others consider Gascony a part of Guyenne. Most definitions put Gascony east and south of Bordeaux. It is currently divided between the region of NouvelleAquitaine (departments of Landes, PyrénéesAtlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern LotetGaronne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, HautesPyrénées, southwestern TarnetGaronne, and western HauteGaronne). Gascony was historically inhabited by Basquerelated people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque. The name Gascony comes from the same root as the word Basq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

France
France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its Metropolitan France, metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin (island), ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Toulouse
Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture of the French department of HauteGaronne and of the larger region of Occitania. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, from the Mediterranean Sea, from the Atlantic Ocean and from Paris. It is the fourthlargest city in France after Paris, Marseille and Lyon, with 493,465 inhabitants within its municipal boundaries (2019 census); its metropolitan area has a population of 1,454,158 inhabitants (2019 census). Toulouse is the central city of one of the 20 French Métropoles, with one of the three strongest demographic growth (20132019). Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. It hosts the CNES's Toulouse Space Centre (CST) which is the largest national space centre in Europe, but also, on the military side, the newly created NATO space centre of excellence and the French Space Command and Space Academy. Thales ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parlement
A ''parlement'' (), under the French Ancien Régime, was a provincial appellate court of the Kingdom of France. In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the oldest and most important of which was the Parlement of Paris. While both the modern French term ''parlement'' (for the legislature) and the English word ''parliament'' derive from this French term, the Ancien Régime parlements were not legislative bodies and the modern and ancient terminology are not interchangeable. History Parlements were judicial organizations consisting of a dozen or more appellate judges, or about 1,100 judges nationwide. They were the courts of final appeal of the judicial system, and typically wielded power over a wide range of subjects, particularly taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them. The members of the parlements were aristocrats, called nobles of the robe, who had bought or inh ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arithmetica
''Arithmetica'' ( grcgre, Ἀριθμητικά) is an Ancient Greek text on mathematics written by the mathematician Diophantus () in the 3rd century AD. It is a collection of 130 algebraic problems giving numerical solutions of determinate equations (those with a unique solution) and indeterminate equations. Summary Equations in the book are presently called Diophantine equations. The method for solving these equations is known as Diophantine analysis. Most of the ''Arithmetica'' problems lead to quadratic equations. In Book 3, Diophantus solves problems of finding values which make two linear expressions simultaneously into squares or cubes. In book 4, he finds rational powers between given numbers. He also noticed that numbers of the form 4n + 3 cannot be the sum of two squares. Diophantus also appears to know that every number can be written as the sum of four squares. If he did know this result (in the sense of having proved it as opposed to merely conjectured it), his ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Optics
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as Xrays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for by using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces. Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability
Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an Event (probability theory), event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, 0 indicates impossibility of the event and 1 indicates certainty."Kendall's Advanced Theory of Statistics, Volume 1: Distribution Theory", Alan Stuart and Keith Ord, 6th Ed, (2009), .William Feller, ''An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications'', (Vol 1), 3rd Ed, (1968), Wiley, . The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes ("heads" and "tails") are both equally probable; the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "heads" or "tails" is 1/2 (which could also be written ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differential Calculus
In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus that studies the rates at which quantities change. It is one of the two traditional divisions of calculus, the other being integral calculus—the study of the area beneath a curve. The primary objects of study in differential calculus are the derivative of a function, related notions such as the differential, and their applications. The derivative of a function at a chosen input value describes the rate of change of the function near that input value. The process of finding a derivative is called differentiation. Geometrically, the derivative at a point is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function at that point, provided that the derivative exists and is defined at that point. For a realvalued function of a single real variable, the derivative of a function at a point generally determines the best linear approximation to the function at that point. Differential calculus and integral calculus are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ordinate
In common usage, the abscissa refers to the (''x'') coordinate and the ordinate refers to the (''y'') coordinate of a standard twodimensional graph. The distance of a point from the yaxis, scaled with the xaxis, is called abscissa or x coordinate of the point. The distance of a point from xaxis scaled with the yaxis is called ordinate. For example, if (x, y) is an ordered pair in the Cartesian plane, then the first coordinate in the plane (x) is called the abscissa and the second coordinate (y) is the ordinate. In mathematics, the abscissa (; plural ''abscissae'' or ''abscissas'') and the ordinate are respectively the first and second coordinate of a point in a Cartesian coordinate system: :abscissa \equiv xaxis (horizontal) coordinate :ordinate \equiv yaxis (vertical) coordinate Usually these are the horizontal and vertical coordinates of a point in plane, the rectangular coordinate system. An ordered pair consists of two terms—the abscissa (horizontal, usually '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Adequality
Adequality is a technique developed by Pierre de Fermat in his treatise ''Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minimam''''METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF MAXIMA AND MINIMA'' English translation of Fermat's treatise ''Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minimam''. (a treatise circulated in France c. 1636) to calculate of functions, s to curves, 