Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (; 13 February 1805 – 5 May 1859) was a German mathematician who made deep contributions to number theory (including creating the field of analytic number theory), and to the theory of Fourier series and other topics in mathematical analysis; he is credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function. Although his surname is Lejeune Dirichlet, he is commonly referred to by his mononym Dirichlet, in particular for results named after him. Biography Early life (1805–1822) Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet was born on 13 February 1805 in Düren, a town on the left bank of the Rhine which at the time was part of the First French Empire, reverting to Prussia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. His father Johann Arnold Lejeune Dirichlet was the postmaster, merchant, and city councilor. His paternal grandfather had come to Düren from Richelette (or more likely Richelle), a small community north ea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Düren
Düren (; ripuarian: Düre) is a town in North RhineWestphalia, Germany, between Aachen and Cologne on the river Rur. History Roman era The area of Düren was part of Gallia Belgica, more specifically the territory of the Eburones, a people who were described as both Belgae and Germani. It was conquered by the Roman Republic under Julius Caesar and became part of Germania inferior. Durum became a supply area for the rapidly growing Roman city of Cologne (Roman name Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium). Furthermore, a few important Roman roads skirt Durum (including the road from Cologne to Jülich and Tongeren and the road from Cologne to Zülpich and Trier). By the 4th century, the area was settled by the Ripuarian Franks. The name ''villa duria'' occurred the first time in the Frankish Annals in the year 747. Frankish king Pippin the Short often visited Düren in the 8th century and held a few important conventions there. The Franks made of Durum a royal palace, from wh ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elwin Bruno Christoffel
Elwin Bruno Christoffel (; 10 November 1829 – 15 March 1900) was a German mathematician and physicist. He introduced fundamental concepts of differential geometry, opening the way for the development of tensor calculus, which would later provide the mathematical basis for general relativity. Life Christoffel was born on 10 November 1829 in Montjoie (now Monschau) in Prussia in a family of cloth merchants. He was initially educated at home in languages and mathematics, then attended the Jesuit Gymnasium and the FriedrichWilhelms Gymnasium in Cologne. In 1850 he went to the University of Berlin, where he studied mathematics with Gustav Dirichlet (which had a strong influence over him) among others, as well as attending courses in physics and chemistry. He received his doctorate in Berlin in 1856 for a thesis on the motion of electricity in homogeneous bodies written under the supervision of Martin Ohm, Ernst Kummer and Heinrich Gustav Magnus. After receiving his doctorate, Ch ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Duden
The Duden () is a dictionary of the Standard High German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880, and later by Bibliographisches Institut GmbH. The Duden is updated regularly with new editions appearing every four or five years. , it is in its 28th edition. It is printed as twelve volumes, with each volume covering different aspects of the German language such as loanwords, etymology, pronunciation, synonyms, etc. The first of these volumes, ' (English: The German orthography), has long been the prescriptive source for Standard High German spelling. The Duden has become the preeminent language resource of the Standard High German language, stating the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and use of Standard High German language. History Konrad Duden's Schleizer Duden (1872) and Urduden (1880) In 1872, Konrad Duden, then headmaster of a ' (secondary school), had his treatise ''Die deutsche Orthoschrift'' (“German orthography”) published by B.G. Te ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pour Le Mérite
The ' (; , ) is an order of merit (german: Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by Frederick the Great, King Frederick II of Prussia. The was awarded as both a military and civil honour and ranked, along with the Order of the Black Eagle, the Order of the Red Eagle and the House Order of Hohenzollern, among the highest orders of merit in the Kingdom of Prussia. The order of merit was the highest royal Prussian order of bravery for officers of all ranks. After 1871, when the various German monarchy, kingdoms, grand duchy, grand duchies, duchy, duchies, principality, principalities and Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city states had come together under Prussian leadership to form the federally structured German Empire, the Prussian honours gradually assumed, at least in public perception, the status of orders, decorations, and medals of Imperial Germany, honours of Imperial Germany, even though many honours of the various German states continued to be awarded. The ' was an honour confe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rheinische FriedrichWilhelmsUniversität Bonn
The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn (german: Rheinische FriedrichWilhelmsUniversität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, North RhineWestphalia, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the ( en, Rhine University) on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the ( en, Academy of the Princeelector of Cologne) which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers many undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors. The University of Bonn is a member of the German U15 association of major researchintensive universities in Germany and has the title of "University of Excellence" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative; it is consistently ranked amongst the best German universities in the world rankings and is one of the most research intensive universities in Germany. Bonn has 6 Clusters of Excellence, the most of any German university; the Hausdorff Center for M ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

PhD (Hon)
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university (or other degreeawarding institution) has waived all of the usual requirements. It is also known by the Latin phrases ''honoris causa'' ("for the sake of the honour") or ''ad honorem '' ("to the honour"). The degree is typically a doctorate or, less commonly, a master's degree, and may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration (''Hon. Causa''). The degree is often conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae (CV) as an award, and not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education generally ask that recipients ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Things Named After Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
The Germany, German mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859) is the eponym of many things. Mathematics * Theorems named ''Dirichlet's theorem'': **Dirichlet's approximation theorem (diophantine approximation) **Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions (number theory, specifically prime numbers) **Dirichlet's unit theorem (algebraic number theory and Ring (mathematics), rings) * Dirichlet algebra * Dirichlet beta function * Dirichlet boundary condition (differential equations) **Neumann–Dirichlet method * Dirichlet characters (number theory, specifically Dirichlet series, zeta and Dirichlet Lfunction, Lfunctions. 1831) * Dirichlet conditions (Fourier series) * Dirichlet convolution (number theory and arithmetic functions) * Dirichlet density (number theory) **Dirichlet average * Dirichlet distribution (probability theory) **Dirichletmultinomial distribution ** Dirichlet negative multinomial distribution **Generalized Dirichlet distribution (probabil ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Julius Weingarten
Julius Weingarten (2 March 1836 – 16 June 1910) was a German mathematician. He received his doctorate in 1864 from MartinLutherUniversität HalleWittenberg. He made some important contributions to the differential geometry of surfaces, such as the Weingarten equations The Weingarten equations give the expansion of the derivative of the unit normal vector to a surface in terms of the first derivatives of the position vector of a point on the surface. These formulas were established in 1861 by the German mathematic .... Notes References * External links * * 19thcentury German mathematicians 1836 births 1910 deaths 20thcentury German mathematicians {{Germanymathematicianstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wilhelm Eduard Weber
Wilhelm Eduard Weber (; ; 24 October 1804 – 23 June 1891) was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph. Biography of Wilhelm Early years Weber was born in Schlossstrasse in Wittenberg, where his father, Michael Weber, was professor of theology. The building had previously been the home of Abraham Vater. Wilhelm was the second of three brothers, all of whom were distinguished by an aptitude for science. After the dissolution of the University of Wittenberg his father was transferred to Halle in 1815. Wilhelm had received his first lessons from his father, but was now sent to the Orphan Asylum and Grammar School at Halle. After that he entered the University, and devoted himself to natural philosophy. He distinguished himself so much in his classes, and by original work, that after taking his degree of Doctor and becoming a ''Privatdozent'' he was appointed Professor Extraordinary of natural philosophy at ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Philipp Ludwig Von Seidel
Philipp Ludwig von Seidel (; 24 October 1821 in Zweibrücken, Germany – 13 August 1896 in Munich, German Empire) was a German mathematician. He was the son of Julie Reinhold and Justus Christian Felix Seidel. Lakatos credits von Seidel with discovering, in 1847, the crucial analytic concept of uniform convergence, while analyzing an incorrect proof of Cauchy's. In 1857, von Seidel decomposed the first order monochromatic aberrations into five constituent aberrations. They are now commonly referred to as the five Seidel Aberrations. The lunar crater Seidel is named after him. His doctoral students include Eduard Study and Hermann Wiener. The Gauss–Seidel method is a useful numerical iterative method for solving linear systems. See also *Seidel triangle References External links Biography University of St. Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ludwig Schläfli
Ludwig Schläfli (15 January 1814 – 20 March 1895) was a Swiss mathematician, specialising in geometry and complex analysis (at the time called function theory) who was one of the key figures in developing the notion of higherdimensional spaces. The concept of multidimensionality is pervasive in mathematics, has come to play a pivotal role in physics, and is a common element in science fiction. Life and career Youth and education Ludwig spent most of his life in Switzerland. He was born in Grasswil (now part of Seeberg), his mother's hometown. The family then moved to the nearby Burgdorf, where his father worked as a tradesman. His father wanted Ludwig to follow in his footsteps, but Ludwig was not cut out for practical work. In contrast, because of his mathematical gifts, he was allowed to attend the Gymnasium in Bern in 1829. By that time he was already learning differential calculus from Abraham Gotthelf Kästner's ''Mathematische Anfangsgründe der Analysis des Unendli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bernhard Riemann
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (; 17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier series. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. His 1859 paper on the primecounting function, containing the original statement of the Riemann hypothesis, is regarded as a foundational paper of analytic number theory. Through his pioneering contributions to differential geometry, Riemann laid the foundations of the mathematics of general relativity. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Biography Early years Riemann was born on 17 September 1826 in Breselenz, a village near Dannenb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 