Pecking Order Theory
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Pecking Order Theory
In corporate finance, the pecking order theory (or pecking order model) postulates that the cost of financing increases with asymmetric information. Financing comes from three sources, internal funds, debt and new equity. Companies prioritize their sources of financing, first preferring internal financing, and then debt, lastly raising equity as a "last resort". Hence: internal financing is used first; when that is depleted, then debt is issued; and when it is no longer sensible to issue any more debt, equity is issued. This theory maintains that businesses adhere to a hierarchy of financing sources and prefer internal financing when available, and debt is preferred over equity if external financing is required (equity would mean issuing shares which meant 'bringing external ownership' into the company). Thus, the form of debt a firm chooses can act as a signal of its need for external finance. The pecking order theory is popularized by Myers and Majluf (1984) where they argue that ...
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Asymmetric Information
In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other. Information asymmetry creates an imbalance of power in transactions, which can sometimes cause the transactions to be inefficient, causing market failure in the worst case. Examples of this problem are adverse selection, moral hazard, and monopolies of knowledge. A common way to visualise information asymmetry is with a scale with one side being the seller and the other the buyer. When the seller has more or better information the transaction will more likely occur in the seller's favour ("the balance of power has shifted to the seller"). An example of this could be when a used car is sold, the seller is likely to have a much better understanding of the car's condition and hence its market value than the buyer, who can only estimate the market value based on the information provided by the seller and their own ...
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Stewart Myers
Stewart Clay Myers is the Robert C. Merton Professor of Financial Economics at the MIT Sloan School of Management. He is notable for his work on capital structure and innovations in capital budgeting and valuation, and has had a "remarkable influence" on both the theory and practice of corporate finance. Myers, in fact, coined the term " real option". He is the co-author with Richard A. Brealey and Franklin Allen of ''Principles of Corporate Finance'', a widely used and cited business school textbook, now in its 11th edition. He is also the author of dozens of research articles. Career He holds a Ph.D. and MBA from Stanford University and an A.B. from Williams College. He began teaching at MIT Sloan School of Management in 1966. His contributions are seen as falling into three main categories: *Work on capital structure, focusing on "debt overhang" and " pecking order theory". *Contributions to capital budgeting that complement his research on capital structure. He is not ...
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Internal Financing
In the theory of capital structure, internal financing is the process of a firm using its profits or assets as a source of capital to fund a new project or investment. Internal sources of finance contrast with external sources of finance. The main difference between the two is that internal financing refers to the business generating funds from activities and assets that already exist in the company whereas external financing requires the involvement of a third party. Internal financing is generally thought to be less expensive for the firm than external financing because the firm does not have to incur transaction costs to obtain it, nor does it have to pay the taxes associated with paying dividends. Many economists debate whether the availability of internal financing is an important determinant of firm investment or not. A related controversy is whether the fact that internal financing is empirically correlated with investment implies firms are credit constrained and there ...
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