Oscillation Of A Function At A Point
In mathematics, the oscillation of a function or a sequence is a number that quantifies how much that sequence or function varies between its extreme values as it approaches infinity or a point. As is the case with limits, there are several definitions that put the intuitive concept into a form suitable for a mathematical treatment: oscillation of a sequence of real numbers, oscillation of a realvalued function at a point, and oscillation of a function on an interval (or open set). Definitions Oscillation of a sequence Let (a_n) be a sequence of real numbers. The oscillation \omega(a_n) of that sequence is defined as the difference (possibly infinite) between the limit superior and limit inferior of (a_n): :\omega(a_n) = \limsup_ a_n  \liminf_ a_n. The oscillation is zero if and only if the sequence converges. It is undefined if \limsup_ and \liminf_ are both equal to +∞ or both equal to −∞, that is, if the sequence tends to +∞ or −∞. Oscillation of a function o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

LimSup
In mathematics, the limit inferior and limit superior of a sequence can be thought of as limiting (that is, eventual and extreme) bounds on the sequence. They can be thought of in a similar fashion for a Function (mathematics), function (see limit of a function). For a set, they are the infimum and supremum of the set's limit points, respectively. In general, when there are multiple objects around which a sequence, function, or set accumulates, the inferior and superior limits extract the smallest and largest of them; the type of object and the measure of size is contextdependent, but the notion of extreme limits is invariant. Limit inferior is also called infimum limit, limit infimum, liminf, inferior limit, lower limit, or inner limit; limit superior is also known as supremum limit, limit supremum, limsup, superior limit, upper limit, or outer limit. The limit inferior of a sequence x_n is denoted by \liminf_x_n\quad\text\quad \varliminf_x_n. The limit superior of a sequence ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frequency
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also occasionally referred to as ''temporal frequency'' for clarity, and is distinct from ''angular frequency''. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) which is equal to one event per second. The period is the interval of time between events, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute (2 hertz), the period, —the interval at which the beats repeat—is half a second (60 seconds divided by 120 beats). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals (sound), radio waves, and light. Definitions and units For cyclical phenomena such as oscillations, waves, or for examples of simple harmonic motion, the term ''frequency'' is defined as the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time. Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Analysis
In mathematics, the branch of real analysis studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions. Some particular properties of realvalued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis is distinguished from complex analysis, which deals with the study of complex numbers and their functions. Scope Construction of the real numbers The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set (\mathbb), together with two binary operations denoted and , and an order denoted . The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique ''complete ordered field'', in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness means ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bounded Mean Oscillation
In harmonic analysis in mathematics, a function of bounded mean oscillation, also known as a BMO function, is a realvalued function whose mean oscillation is bounded (finite). The space of functions of bounded mean oscillation (BMO), is a function space that, in some precise sense, plays the same role in the theory of Hardy spaces ''Hp'' that the space ''L''∞ of essentially bounded functions plays in the theory of ''Lp''spaces: it is also called John–Nirenberg space, after Fritz John and Louis Nirenberg who introduced and studied it for the first time. Historical note According to , the space of functions of bounded mean oscillation was introduced by in connection with his studies of mappings from a bounded set belonging to R''n'' into R''n'' and the corresponding problems arising from elasticity theory, precisely from the concept of elastic strain: the basic notation was introduced in a closely following paper by , where several properties of this function spaces were ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Grandi's Series
In mathematics, the infinite series , also written : \sum_^\infty (1)^n is sometimes called Grandi's series, after Italian mathematician, philosopher, and priest Guido Grandi, who gave a memorable treatment of the series in 1703. It is a divergent series, meaning that it lacks a sum in the usual sense. On the other hand, its Cesàro sum is 1/2. Unrigorous methods One obvious method to attack the series :1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + ... is to treat it like a telescoping series and perform the subtractions in place: :(1 − 1) + (1 − 1) + (1 − 1) + ... = 0 + 0 + 0 + ... = 0. On the other hand, a similar bracketing procedure leads to the apparently contradictory result :1 + (−1 + 1) + (−1 + 1) + (−1 + 1) + ... = 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + ... = 1. Thus, by applying parentheses to Grandi's series in different ways, one can obtain either 0 or 1 as a "value". (Variations of this idea, called the Eilenberg–Mazur swindle, are sometimes used in knot theory and algeb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wave Envelope
In physics and engineering, the envelope of an oscillating signal is a smooth curve outlining its extremes. The envelope thus generalizes the concept of a constant amplitude into an instantaneous amplitude. The figure illustrates a modulated sine wave varying between an ''upper envelope'' and a ''lower envelope''. The envelope function may be a function of time, space, angle, or indeed of any variable. In beating waves A common situation resulting in an envelope function in both space ''x'' and time ''t'' is the superposition of two waves of almost the same wavelength and frequency: : \begin F(x, \ t) & = \sin \left 2 \pi \left( \frac  ( f + \Delta f )t \right) \right+ \sin \left 2 \pi \left( \frac  ( f  \Delta f )t \right) \right\\ pt& \approx 2\cos \left 2 \pi \left( \frac  \Delta f \ t \right) \right\ \sin \left 2 \pi \left( \frac  f \ t \right) \right\end which uses the trigonometric formula for the addition of two sine waves, and the approximation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wave Equation
The (twoway) wave equation is a secondorder linear partial differential equation for the description of waves or standing wave fields — as they occur in classical physics — such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or electromagnetic waves (including light waves). It arises in fields like acoustics, electromagnetism, and fluid dynamics. Single mechanical or electromagnetic waves propagating in a predefined direction can also be described with the firstorder oneway wave equation which is much easier to solve and also valid for inhomogenious media. Introduction The (twoway) wave equation is a secondorder partial differential equation describing waves, including traveling and standing waves; the latter can be considered as linear superpositions of waves traveling in opposite directions. This article mostly focuses on the scalar wave equation describing waves in scalars by scalar functions of a time variable (a variable repres ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lim Inf
In mathematics, the limit inferior and limit superior of a sequence can be thought of as limiting (that is, eventual and extreme) bounds on the sequence. They can be thought of in a similar fashion for a function (see limit of a function). For a set, they are the infimum and supremum of the set's limit points, respectively. In general, when there are multiple objects around which a sequence, function, or set accumulates, the inferior and superior limits extract the smallest and largest of them; the type of object and the measure of size is contextdependent, but the notion of extreme limits is invariant. Limit inferior is also called infimum limit, limit infimum, liminf, inferior limit, lower limit, or inner limit; limit superior is also known as supremum limit, limit supremum, limsup, superior limit, upper limit, or outer limit. The limit inferior of a sequence x_n is denoted by \liminf_x_n\quad\text\quad \varliminf_x_n. The limit superior of a sequence x_n is denoted by \lims ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lim Sup
In mathematics, the limit inferior and limit superior of a sequence can be thought of as limiting (that is, eventual and extreme) bounds on the sequence. They can be thought of in a similar fashion for a Function (mathematics), function (see limit of a function). For a set, they are the infimum and supremum of the set's limit points, respectively. In general, when there are multiple objects around which a sequence, function, or set accumulates, the inferior and superior limits extract the smallest and largest of them; the type of object and the measure of size is contextdependent, but the notion of extreme limits is invariant. Limit inferior is also called infimum limit, limit infimum, liminf, inferior limit, lower limit, or inner limit; limit superior is also known as supremum limit, limit supremum, limsup, superior limit, upper limit, or outer limit. The limit inferior of a sequence x_n is denoted by \liminf_x_n\quad\text\quad \varliminf_x_n. The limit superior of a sequence ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Integrability Condition
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Descriptive Set Theory
In mathematical logic, descriptive set theory (DST) is the study of certain classes of "wellbehaved" subsets of the real line and other Polish spaces. As well as being one of the primary areas of research in set theory, it has applications to other areas of mathematics such as functional analysis, ergodic theory, the study of operator algebras and group actions, and mathematical logic. Polish spaces Descriptive set theory begins with the study of Polish spaces and their Borel sets. A Polish space is a secondcountable topological space that is metrizable with a complete metric. Heuristically, it is a complete separable metric space whose metric has been "forgotten". Examples include the real line \mathbb, the Baire space \mathcal, the Cantor space \mathcal, and the Hilbert cube I^. Universality properties The class of Polish spaces has several universality properties, which show that there is no loss of generality in considering Polish spaces of certain restricted form ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 