Operator Theory
In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators. The operators may be presented abstractly by their characteristics, such as bounded linear operators or closed operators, and consideration may be given to nonlinear operators. The study, which depends heavily on the topology of function spaces, is a branch of functional analysis. If a collection of operators forms an algebra over a field, then it is an operator algebra. The description of operator algebras is part of operator theory. Single operator theory Single operator theory deals with the properties and classification of operators, considered one at a time. For example, the classification of normal operators in terms of their spectra falls into this category. Spectrum of operators The spectral theorem is any of a number of results about linear operators or about matrices. In broad terms the spectral theorem provides cond ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diagonalizable Matrix
In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable or nondefective if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that or equivalently (Such D are not unique.) For a finitedimensional vector space a linear map T:V\to V is called diagonalizable if there exists an ordered basis of V consisting of eigenvectors of T. These definitions are equivalent: if T has a matrix representation T = PDP^ as above, then the column vectors of P form a basis consisting of eigenvectors of and the diagonal entries of D are the corresponding eigenvalues of with respect to this eigenvector basis, A is represented by Diagonalization is the process of finding the above P and Diagonalizable matrices and maps are especially easy for computations, once their eigenvalues and eigenvectors are known. One can raise a diagonal matrix D to a power by simply raising the diagonal entries to that power, and the determi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unitary Operator
In functional analysis, a unitary operator is a surjective bounded operator on a Hilbert space that preserves the inner product. Unitary operators are usually taken as operating ''on'' a Hilbert space, but the same notion serves to define the concept of isomorphism ''between'' Hilbert spaces. A unitary element is a generalization of a unitary operator. In a unital algebra, an element of the algebra is called a unitary element if , where is the identity element. Definition Definition 1. A ''unitary operator'' is a bounded linear operator on a Hilbert space that satisfies , where is the adjoint of , and is the identity operator. The weaker condition defines an ''isometry''. The other condition, , defines a ''coisometry''. Thus a unitary operator is a bounded linear operator which is both an isometry and a coisometry, or, equivalently, a surjective isometry. An equivalent definition is the following: Definition 2. A ''unitary operator'' is a bounded linear operator on a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spectral Theorem
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix (mathematics), matrix can be Diagonalizable matrix, diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This is extremely useful because computations involving a diagonalizable matrix can often be reduced to much simpler computations involving the corresponding diagonal matrix. The concept of diagonalization is relatively straightforward for operators on finitedimensional vector spaces but requires some modification for operators on infinitedimensional spaces. In general, the spectral theorem identifies a class of linear operators that can be modeled by multiplication operators, which are as simple as one can hope to find. In more abstract language, the spectral theorem is a statement about commutative C*algebras. See also spectral theory for a historical perspective. Examples of operators to which the spectral theorem appl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hermitian Adjoint
In mathematics, specifically in operator theory, each linear operator A on a Euclidean vector space defines a Hermitian adjoint (or adjoint) operator A^* on that space according to the rule :\langle Ax,y \rangle = \langle x,A^*y \rangle, where \langle \cdot,\cdot \rangle is the inner product on the vector space. The adjoint may also be called the Hermitian conjugate or simply the Hermitian after Charles Hermite. It is often denoted by in fields like physics, especially when used in conjunction with bra–ket notation in quantum mechanics. In finite dimensions where operators are represented by matrices, the Hermitian adjoint is given by the conjugate transpose (also known as the Hermitian transpose). The above definition of an adjoint operator extends verbatim to bounded linear operators on Hilbert spaces H. The definition has been further extended to include unbounded '' densely defined'' operators whose domain is topologically dense in—but not necessarily equal to— ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutator
In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. There are different definitions used in group theory and ring theory. Group theory The commutator of two elements, and , of a group , is the element : . This element is equal to the group's identity if and only if and commute (from the definition , being equal to the identity if and only if ). The set of all commutators of a group is not in general closed under the group operation, but the subgroup of ''G'' generated by all commutators is closed and is called the ''derived group'' or the ''commutator subgroup'' of ''G''. Commutators are used to define nilpotent and solvable groups and the largest abelian quotient group. The definition of the commutator above is used throughout this article, but many other group theorists define the commutator as :. Identities (group theory) Commutator identities are an important tool in group theory. The expr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function (topology)
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Eigendecomposition Of A Matrix
In linear algebra, eigendecomposition is the Matrix factorization, factorization of a matrix (mathematics), matrix into a canonical form, whereby the matrix is represented in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Only diagonalizable matrix, diagonalizable matrices can be factorized in this way. When the matrix being factorized is a normal matrix, normal or real symmetric matrix, the decomposition is called "spectral decomposition", derived from the spectral theorem. Fundamental theory of matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues A (nonzero) vector of dimension is an eigenvector of a square matrix if it satisfies a linear equation of the form :\mathbf \mathbf = \lambda \mathbf for some scalar . Then is called the eigenvalue corresponding to . Geometrically speaking, the eigenvectors of are the vectors that merely elongates or shrinks, and the amount that they elongate/shrink by is the eigenvalue. The above equation is called the eigenvalue equation or the eigenvalue probl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Canonical Form
In mathematics and computer science, a canonical, normal, or standard form of a mathematical object is a standard way of presenting that object as a mathematical expression. Often, it is one which provides the simplest representation of an object and which allows it to be identified in a unique way. The distinction between "canonical" and "normal" forms varies from subfield to subfield. In most fields, a canonical form specifies a ''unique'' representation for every object, while a normal form simply specifies its form, without the requirement of uniqueness. The canonical form of a positive integer in decimal representation is a finite sequence of digits that does not begin with zero. More generally, for a class of objects on which an equivalence relation is defined, a canonical form consists in the choice of a specific object in each class. For example: *Jordan normal form is a canonical form for matrix similarity. *The row echelon form is a canonical form, when one considers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert Space
In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow generalizing the methods of linear algebra and calculus from (finitedimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinitedimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that defines a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term ''Hilbert space'' for the abstract concept that under ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Selfadjoint Operator
In mathematics, a selfadjoint operator on an infinitedimensional complex vector space ''V'' with inner product \langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle (equivalently, a Hermitian operator in the finitedimensional case) is a linear map ''A'' (from ''V'' to itself) that is its own adjoint. If ''V'' is finitedimensional with a given orthonormal basis, this is equivalent to the condition that the matrix of ''A'' is a Hermitian matrix, i.e., equal to its conjugate transpose ''A''. By the finitedimensional spectral theorem, ''V'' has an orthonormal basis such that the matrix of ''A'' relative to this basis is a diagonal matrix with entries in the real numbers. In this article, we consider generalizations of this concept to operators on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension. Selfadjoint operators are used in functional analysis and quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics their importance lies in the Dirac–von Neumann formulation of quantum mechanics, in which physical observables such as positi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spectral Theory
In mathematics, spectral theory is an inclusive term for theories extending the eigenvector and eigenvalue theory of a single square matrix to a much broader theory of the structure of operators in a variety of mathematical spaces. It is a result of studies of linear algebra and the solutions of systems of linear equations and their generalizations. The theory is connected to that of analytic functions because the spectral properties of an operator are related to analytic functions of the spectral parameter. Mathematical background The name ''spectral theory'' was introduced by David Hilbert in his original formulation of Hilbert space theory, which was cast in terms of quadratic forms in infinitely many variables. The original spectral theorem was therefore conceived as a version of the theorem on principal axes of an ellipsoid, in an infinitedimensional setting. The later discovery in quantum mechanics that spectral theory could explain features of atomic spectra was therefore ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 