Operations On Sets
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Operations On Sets
Operation or Operations may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media * ''Operation'' (game), a battery-operated board game that challenges dexterity * Operation (music), a term used in musical set theory * ''Operations'' (magazine), Multi-Man Publishing's house organ for articles and discussion about its wargaming products * ''The Operation'' (film), a 1973 British television film * ''The Operation'' (1990), a crime, drama, TV movie starring Joe Penny, Lisa Hartman, and Jason Beghe * ''The Operation'' (1992–1998), a reality television series from TLC * The Operation M.D., formerly The Operation, a Canadian garage rock band * "Operation", a song by Relient K from ''The Creepy EP'', 2001 Business * Business operations, the harvesting of value from assets owned by a business * Manufacturing operations, operation of a facility * Operations management, an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production Military and law enforcement ...
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Operation (game)
Oldest goes first ame of physical skill ''Operation'' is a battery-operated game of physical skill that tests players' eye-hand coordination and fine motor skills. The game's prototype was invented in 1964 by John Spinello, a University of Illinois industrial design student at the time, who sold his rights to the game to renowned toy designer Marvin Glass and Associates, Marvin Glass for a sum of US$500 and the promise of a job upon graduation (a promise that was not upheld). Initially produced by Milton Bradley Company, Milton Bradley in 1965, ''Operation'' is currently made by Hasbro, with an estimated franchise worth of US$40 million. The game is a variant of the old-fashioned Wire loop game, electrified wire loop game popular at funfairs. It consists of an "operating table", Lithography, lithographed with a comic likeness of a patient (nicknamed "Cavity Sam") with a large red lightbulb for his nose. On the surface are several openings, which reveal cavities filled with fictiona ...
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Special Operations
Special operations (S.O.) are military activities conducted, according to NATO, by "specially designated, organized, selected, trained, and equipped forces using unconventional techniques and modes of employment". Special operations may include reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and counter-terrorism actions, and are typically conducted by small groups of highly-trained personnel, emphasizing sufficiency, stealth, speed, and tactical coordination, commonly known as " special forces". History Australia In World War II following advice from the British, Australia began raising special forces. The first units to be formed were independent companies, which began training at Wilson's Promontory in Victoria in early 1941 under the tutelage of British instructors. With an establishment of 17 officers and 256 men, the independent companies were trained as "stay behind" forces, a role that they were later employed in against the Japanese in the South West Pacific Area during 1942 ...
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Rail Transport Operations
Rail transport operations are the day-to-day operations of a railway. A railway has two major components: the infrastructure (the permanent way, tracks, stations, freight facilities, viaducts, tunnels, etc.) and the rolling stock (the locomotives, passenger coaches, freight cars, etc.) Ownership and operation of these two components varies by location. In some places (notably, most of North America) private railway companies own and operate both the infrastructure and rolling stock (for example, Union Pacific). In the United Kingdom, the infrastructure is owned and maintained by Network Rail while rolling stock is largely owned and operated by private railway companies. In countries with nationalized rail systems such as China and France, both the infrastructure and rolling stock are owned and operated directly or indirectly by the national government. Operation The operation of the railway is through a system of control, originally by mechanical means, but nowadays more us ...
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Unary Operation
In mathematics, an unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input. This is in contrast to binary operations, which use two operands. An example is any function , where is a set. The function is a unary operation on . Common notations are prefix notation (e.g. ¬, −), postfix notation (e.g. factorial ), functional notation (e.g. or ), and superscripts (e.g. transpose ). Other notations exist as well, for example, in the case of the square root, a horizontal bar extending the square root sign over the argument can indicate the extent of the argument. Examples Unary negative and positive As unary operations have only one operand they are evaluated before other operations containing them. Here is an example using negation: :3 − −2 Here, the first '−' represents the binary subtraction operation, while the second '−' represents the unary negation of the 2 (or '−2' could be taken to mean the integer −2). Therefore, the expressi ...
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Operations Research
Operations research ( en-GB, operational research) (U.S. Air Force Specialty Code: Operations Analysis), often shortened to the initialism OR, is a discipline that deals with the development and application of analytical methods to improve decision-making. It is considered to be a subfield of mathematical sciences. The term management science is occasionally used as a synonym. Employing techniques from other mathematical sciences, such as modeling, statistics, and optimization, operations research arrives at optimal or near-optimal solutions to decision-making problems. Because of its emphasis on practical applications, operations research has overlap with many other disciplines, notably industrial engineering. Operations research is often concerned with determining the extreme values of some real-world objective: the maximum (of profit, performance, or yield) or minimum (of loss, risk, or cost). Originating in military efforts before World War II, its techniques have grown to ...
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Modulo Operation
In computing, the modulo operation returns the remainder or signed remainder of a division, after one number is divided by another (called the '' modulus'' of the operation). Given two positive numbers and , modulo (often abbreviated as ) is the remainder of the Euclidean division of by , where is the dividend and is the divisor. For example, the expression "5 mod 2" would evaluate to 1, because 5 divided by 2 has a quotient of 2 and a remainder of 1, while "9 mod 3" would evaluate to 0, because 9 divided by 3 has a quotient of 3 and a remainder of 0; there is nothing to subtract from 9 after multiplying 3 times 3. Although typically performed with and both being integers, many computing systems now allow other types of numeric operands. The range of values for an integer modulo operation of is 0 to inclusive ( mod 1 is always 0; is undefined, possibly resulting in a division by zero error in some programming languages). See Modular arithmetic for an older and related c ...
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Graph Operations
In the mathematical field of graph theory, graph operations are operations which produce new graphs from initial ones. They include both unary (one input) and binary (two input) operations. Unary operations Unary operations create a new graph from a single initial graph. Elementary operations Elementary operations or editing operations, which are also known as graph edit operations, create a new graph from one initial one by a simple local change, such as addition or deletion of a vertex or of an edge, merging and splitting of vertices, edge contraction, etc. The graph edit distance between a pair of graphs is the minimum number of elementary operations required to transform one graph into the other. Advanced operations Advanced operations create a new graph from initial one by a complex changes, such as: * transpose graph; * complement graph; * line graph; * graph minor; * graph rewriting; * power of graph; * dual graph; * medial graph; * quotient graph; * Y-Δ transf ...
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Binary Operation
In mathematics, a binary operation or dyadic operation is a rule for combining two elements (called operands) to produce another element. More formally, a binary operation is an operation of arity two. More specifically, an internal binary operation ''on a set'' is a binary operation whose two domains and the codomain are the same set. Examples include the familiar arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Other examples are readily found in different areas of mathematics, such as vector addition, matrix multiplication, and conjugation in groups. An operation of arity two that involves several sets is sometimes also called a ''binary operation''. For example, scalar multiplication of vector spaces takes a scalar and a vector to produce a vector, and scalar product takes two vectors to produce a scalar. Such binary operations may be called simply binary functions. Binary operations are the keystone of most algebraic structures that are studie ...
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Arity
Arity () is the number of arguments or operands taken by a function, operation or relation in logic, mathematics, and computer science. In mathematics, arity may also be named ''rank'', but this word can have many other meanings in mathematics. In logic and philosophy, it is also called adicity and degree. In linguistics, it is usually named valency. Examples The term "arity" is rarely employed in everyday usage. For example, rather than saying "the arity of the addition operation is 2" or "addition is an operation of arity 2" one usually says "addition is a binary operation". In general, the naming of functions or operators with a given arity follows a convention similar to the one used for ''n''-based numeral systems such as binary and hexadecimal. One combines a Latin prefix with the -ary ending; for example: * A nullary function takes no arguments. ** Example: f()=2 * A unary function takes one argument. ** Example: f(x)=2x * A binary function takes two arguments. ** E ...
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Operation (mathematics)
In mathematics, an operation is a function which takes zero or more input values (also called "'' operands''" or "arguments") to a well-defined output value. The number of operands is the arity of the operation. The most commonly studied operations are binary operations (i.e., operations of arity 2), such as addition and multiplication, and unary operations (i.e., operations of arity 1), such as additive inverse and multiplicative inverse. An operation of arity zero, or nullary operation, is a constant. The mixed product is an example of an operation of arity 3, also called ternary operation. Generally, the arity is taken to be finite. However, infinitary operations are sometimes considered, in which case the "usual" operations of finite arity are called finitary operations. A partial operation is defined similarly to an operation, but with a partial function in place of a function. Types of operation There are two common types of operations: unary a ...
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Information Technology Operations
Data center management is the collection of tasks performed by those responsible for managing ongoing operation of a data center This includes ''Business service management'' and planning for the future. Historically, ''data center management'' was seen as something performed by employees, with the help of tools collectively called Data Center Infrastructure Management (DCIM) tools. Both for in-house operation and outsourcing, Service-level agreements must be managed to ensure data-availability. Competition Data center management is a growing major topic for a growing list of large companies who both compete and cooperate, including: Dell, Google, HP, IBM, Intel and Yahoo. Hardware/software vendors who are willing to live with coopetition are working on projects such as "The Distributed Management Task Force" (DMTF) with a goal of learning to "more effectively manage mixed Linux, Windows and cloud environments." With the ''DMTF'' a decade old, the list of companies is growin ...
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Inference
Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, the word ''wikt:infer, infer'' means to "carry forward". Inference is theoretically traditionally divided into deductive reasoning, deduction and inductive reasoning, induction, a distinction that in Europe dates at least to Aristotle (300s BCE). Deduction is inference Formal proof, deriving Logical consequence, logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be truth, true, with the Rule of inference, laws of valid inference being studied in logic. Induction is inference from particular evidence to a Universal (metaphysics), universal conclusion. A third type of inference is sometimes distinguished, notably by Charles Sanders Peirce, contradistinguishing Abductive reasoning, abduction from induction. Various fields study how inference is done in practice. Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the fields of logic, argumentation stud ...
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