Meckel's Cartilage
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Meckel's Cartilage
In humans, the cartilaginous bar of the mandibular arch The pharyngeal arches, also known as visceral arches'','' are structures seen in the embryogenesis, embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures. In fish, the arches are known as the branchial arches, ... is formed by what are known as Meckel's cartilages (right and left) also known as Meckelian cartilages; above this the incus The incus or anvil is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cell, red and white blood cells, ... and malleus The malleus or hammer is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicl ... are developed. Meckel's cartilage arises fro ...
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First Pharyngeal Arch
The pharyngeal arches, also known as visceral arches'','' are structures seen in the Animal embryonic development, embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures. In fish, the arches are known as the branchial arches, or gill arches. In the human embryo, the arches are first seen during the fourth week of human embryogenesis, development. They appear as a series of outpouchings of mesoderm on both sides of the developing pharynx. The vasculature of the pharyngeal arches is known as the aortic arches. In fish, the branchial arches support the Fish gill, gills. Structure In vertebrates, the pharyngeal arches are derived from all three germ layers (the primary layers of cells that form during embryogenesis). Neural crest cells enter these arches where they contribute to features of the skull and facial skeleton such as bone and cartilage. However, the existence of pharyngeal structures before neural crest cells evolved is indicated by the ...
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Palaeos
Palaeos.com is a web site on biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Developmenta ..., paleontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch (geology), epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes th ..., phylogeny , based on completely sequenced genomes. A phylogenetic tree (also phylogeny or evolutionary tree Felsenstein J. (2004). ''Inferring Phylogenies'' Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.) is a branching diagram or a tree showing the evolution ... and geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Ea ...
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Eutriconodont
Eutriconodonta is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the habit of achieving a ... of early mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female#Mammalian female, females produce milk ...s. Eutriconodonts existed in Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict crite ..., Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally id ...
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Evolution Of Mammals
The evolution of mammals has passed through many stages since the first appearance of their synapsid ancestors in the Pennsylvanian (geology), Pennsylvanian sub-period of the late Carboniferous period. By the mid-Triassic, there were many synapsid species that looked like mammals. The lineage leading to today's mammals split up in the Jurassic; synapsids from this period include ''Dryolestes'', more closely related to extant placentals and marsupials than to monotremes, as well as ''Ambondro mahabo, Ambondro'', more closely related to monotremes. Later on, the eutherian and metatherian lineages separated; the metatherians are the animals more closely related to the marsupials, while the eutherians are those more closely related to the placentals. Since ''Juramaia'', the earliest known eutherian, lived 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, this divergence must have occurred in the same period. After the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs (bi ...
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Articular
The articular bone is part of the lower jaw of most vertebrates Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ..., including most jawed fish Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few excepti ..., amphibians Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda . It includes extant and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs and therefore bi ..., birds Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers ...
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Tetrapods
Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes Neontology#Extant taxa vs. extinct taxa, extant and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs and therefore birds), and synapsids (including mammals). Tetrapods evolved from a group of animals known as the Tetrapodomorpha which, in turn, evolved from ancient Sarcopterygii, sarcopterygian fish around 390 million years ago in the middle Devonian, Devonian period; their forms were transitional between lobe-finned fishes and the four-limbed tetrapods. The first tetrapods (from a traditional, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, apomorphy-based perspective) appeared by the late Devonian, 367.5 million years ago. The specific aquatic ancestors of the tetrapods and the process by which they colonized Earth's land after emerging from water remains unclear. The change from a body plan for breathing and navigating in water to a body plan enabling the animal to move on land is one of the most profound ...
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Embryos
An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism A multicellular organism is an organism that consists of more than one cell (biology), cell, in contrast to a unicellular organism. All species of animals, Embryophyte, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few .... In general, in organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multice ...s that reproduce sexually, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orth ... and continues throug ...
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Mammals
Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ... , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiration#Aerobic respiration, ...s constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge represent ...
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Birds
Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high rate, a four-chambered , and a strong yet lightweight . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the to the . There are about ten thousand living species, more than half of which are , or "perching" birds. Birds have whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct and s. Wings, which evolved from s, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including s, s, and diverse island species. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly s and some , have further evolved for swimming. Birds are a group of s and constitute the . Likewise, birds are considered s in the modern sense of the term, and their closest living relatives are the ns. Birds are descen ...
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Reptiles
Reptiles, as most commonly defined, are the animals in the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ... Reptilia , a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—Monophyly, monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyleti ... grouping comprising all amniotes Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον ''amnion'', "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός ''amnos'', "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising reptiles (c ... except synapsids (mammals and their extinct relatives) and Aves (birds). Living reptiles comprise turtles, cr ...
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Amphibians
Amphibians are ectotherm File:Junonia lemonias DSF by Kadavoor.JPG, ''Junonia lemonias'' is basking under the sun. An ectotherm (from the Ancient Greek, Greek ἐκτός (''ektós'') "outside" and θερμός (''thermós'') "hot") is an organism in which internal physio ...ic, tetrapod Tetrapods (; ) are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda (). It includes Neontology#Extant taxa vs. extinct taxa, extant and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs and therefore birds), and synapsids (including mam ... vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ...s of the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of indi ...
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Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes (), popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue. They can be contrasted with the Chondrichthyes, which have skeletons primarily composed of cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species. It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes is divided into the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 420 million years old, which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes. Osteichthyes can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology the terms are synonymous. In ichthyology the difference is that Euteleostomi presents a cladistic view which includes ...
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