Luminance
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Luminance
Luminance is a Photometry (optics), photometric measure of the luminous intensity per units of measurement, unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted from, or is reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle. Brightness is the terminology, term for the ''subjective'' impression of the ''objective'' luminance measurement standard (see for the importance of this contrast). The SI base unit, SI unit for luminance is candela per square metre (cd/m2). A non-SI term for the same unit is the nit (unit), nit. The unit in the Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Centimetre–gram–second system of units (CGS) (which predated the SI system) is the stilb (luminance), stilb, which is equal to one candela per square centimetre or 10 kcd/m2. Description Luminance is often used to characterize emission or reflection from flat, diffuse reflection, diffuse surfaces. Luminance level ...
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Illuminance
In photometry (optics), photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of how much the incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception.International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): ''International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.'ref. 845-21-060, illuminance/ref> Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance is also known as luminous exitance. In SI derived units, SI units illuminance is measured in lux (lx), or equivalently in lumen (unit), lumens per square metre (Lumen (unit), lm·meter, m−2). Luminous exitance is measured in lm·m−2 only, not lux. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): ''International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.'ref. 845-21-081, luminous exitance/ref> In the CGS system, the unit of illuminance is the phot, which is equal to . The foot-candle is ...
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Candela Per Square Metre
The candela per square metre (symbol: cd/m2) is the unit of luminance in the International System of Units (SI). The unit is based on the candela, the SI unit of luminous intensity, and the square metre, the SI unit of area. The nit (symbol: nt) is a non-SI name also used for this unit (1 nt = 1 cd/m2). The term ''nit'' is believed to come from the Latin word , "to shine". As a measure of light emitted per unit area, this unit is frequently used to specify the brightness of a display device. The sRGB spec for monitors targets . Typically, monitors calibrated for Standard-definition television, SDR broadcast or studio color grading should have a brightness of . Most consumer desktop liquid crystal displays have luminances of 200 to 300 cd/m2. High-dynamic-range video, HDR displays range from 450 to above 1600 cd/m2. Comparison with other units of luminance One candela per square metre is equal to: *10−4 stilb (unit), stilbs (the CGS unit of luminance) *π×10 ...
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Brightness
Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target. The perception is not linear to luminance, and relies on the context of the viewing environment (for example, see White's illusion). Brightness is a subjective sensation of an object being observed and one of the Color appearance model#Color appearance parameters, color appearance parameters of many color appearance models, typically denoted as Q. Brightness refers to how much light ''appears to shine'' from something. This is a different perception than lightness, which is how light something appears ''compared to'' a similarly lit white object. The adjective '':wikt:bbright'' derives from an Old English ''beorht'' with the same meaning via metathesis giving Middle English ''briht''. The word is from a Common Germanic ', ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European language, PIE root w ...
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Brightness
Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target. The perception is not linear to luminance, and relies on the context of the viewing environment (for example, see White's illusion). Brightness is a subjective sensation of an object being observed and one of the Color appearance model#Color appearance parameters, color appearance parameters of many color appearance models, typically denoted as Q. Brightness refers to how much light ''appears to shine'' from something. This is a different perception than lightness, which is how light something appears ''compared to'' a similarly lit white object. The adjective '':wikt:bbright'' derives from an Old English ''beorht'' with the same meaning via metathesis giving Middle English ''briht''. The word is from a Common Germanic ', ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European language, PIE root w ...
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Candela
The candela ( or ; symbol: cd) is the unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI). It measures luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a light source in a particular direction. Luminous intensity is analogous to radiant intensity, but instead of simply adding up the contributions of every wavelength of light in the source's spectrum, the contribution of each wavelength is weighting, weighted by the standard luminosity function (a model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths). A common wax candle emits light with a luminous intensity of roughly one candela. If emission in some directions is blocked by an opaque barrier, the emission would still be approximately one candela in the directions that are not obscured. The word ''candela'' is Latin language, Latin for ''candle''. The old name "candle" is still sometimes used, as in ''foot-candle'' and the modern definition of ''candlepower''. Definition The 26th General Conference ...
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Stilb (luminance)
The stilb (sb) is the CGS unit of luminance for objects that are not self-luminous. It is equal to one candela per square centimeter or 104 Nit (unit), nits (candelas per square meter). The name was coined by the French physicist André Blondel around 1920. It comes from the Greek word (), meaning 'to glitter'. It was in common use in Europe up to World War I. In North America self-explanatory terms such as candle per square inch and candle per square meter were more common. The unit has since largely been replaced by the SI unit: candela per square meter. The current national standard for SI in the United States discourages the use of the stilb.IEEE/ASTM SI 10-2002. ''American National Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System''. New York: IEEE, 30 December 2002. See Section 3.3.3. Unit conversion Notes and references Stilb at ''A Dictionary of Units of Measurement'', Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Ac ...
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Photometry (optics)
Photometry is the science of the measurement of light, in terms of its perceived brightness to the human eye. It is distinct from radiometry, which is the science of measurement of radiant energy (including light) in terms of absolute power. In modern photometry, the radiant power at each wavelength is weighted by a luminosity function that models human brightness sensitivity. Typically, this weighting function is the photopic vision, photopic sensitivity function, although the scotopic vision, scotopic function or other functions may also be applied in the same way. Photometry and the eye The human eye is not equally sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light. Photometry attempts to account for this by weighting the measured power at each wavelength with a factor that represents how sensitive the eye is at that wavelength. The standardized model of the eye's response to light as a function of wavelength is given by the luminosity function. The eye has different responses as ...
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Lumen (unit)
The lumen (symbol: lm) is the unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total quantity of visible light emitted by a source per unit of time, in the International System of Units (SI). Luminous flux differs from power (physics), power (radiant flux) in that radiant flux includes all electromagnetic waves emitted, while luminous flux is weighting, weighted according to a model (a "luminosity function") of the human eye's sensitivity to various wavelengths. One lux is one lumen per square metre. The lumen is defined in relation to the candela as : 1 lm = 1 candela, cd·steradian, sr. A full sphere has a solid angle of 4π steradians, so a light source that uniformly radiates one candela in all directions has a total luminous flux of :. Explanation If a light source emits one candela of luminous intensity uniformly across a solid angle of one steradian, the total luminous flux emitted into that angle is one lumen (1 candela, cd·1 steradian, sr = 1 lm). Alternatively, an isotr ...
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Human Eye
The human eye is a sensory organ (biology), organ, part of the sensory nervous system, that reacts to light, visible light and allows humans to use visual information for various purposes including Visual perception, seeing things, Balance (ability), keeping balance, and maintaining circadian rhythm. The eye can be considered as a living optics, optical device. It is approximately spherical in shape, with its outer layers, such as the outermost, white part of the eye (the sclera) and one of its inner layers (the pigmented choroid) keeping the eye essentially stray light, light tight except on the eye's optic axis. In order, along the optic axis, the optical components consist of a first lens (the cornea, cornea—the clear part of the eye) that accomplishes most of the Focus (optics), focussing of light from the outside world; then an aperture (the pupil) in a Diaphragm (optics), diaphragm (the Iris (anatomy), iris—the coloured part of the eye) that controls the amount of light ...
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Diffuse Reflection
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An ''ideal'' diffuse reflecting surface is said to exhibit Lambertian reflection, meaning that there is equal luminance when viewed from all directions lying in the half-space adjacent to the surface. A surface built from a non-absorbing powder such as plaster, or from fibers such as paper, or from a polycrystalline material such as white marble, reflects light diffusely with great efficiency. Many common materials exhibit a mixture of specular and diffuse reflection. The visibility of objects, excluding light-emitting ones, is primarily caused by diffuse reflection of light: it is diffusely-scattered light that forms the image of the object in the observer's eye. Mechanism Diffuse reflection from solids is generally not due to surface rou ...
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Nit (unit)
NiT, NIT or Nits may refer to: Education * Narula Institute of Technology, West Bengal, India * National Institutes of Technology, India * Naval Institute of Technology, Biliran, Philippines * Nippon Institute of Technology, Japan * Northern Institute of Technology Management, Germany * Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Iran Science and technology * Nit, the egg case of a head louse * Nit (unit), of luminance * Nat (unit) or nit, natural unit of information * Network Investigative Technique, computer malware used by the FBI Other uses * National Invitation Tournament, for US men's college basketball * Nagpur Improvement Trust, India * Nits (band), a Dutch musical group * ''National Indigenous Times'', indigenous Australian affairs newspaper * Negative income tax * Neith or Nit, ancient Egyptian goddess * Norfolk International Terminals, facility of the Virginia Port Authority, US * Notice inviting tenders, Indian equivalent of invitation to tender * NIT, a former state T ...
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Solid Angle
In geometry, a solid angle (symbol: ) is a measure of the amount of the field of view from some particular point that a given object covers. That is, it is a measure of how large the object appears to an observer looking from that point. The point from which the object is viewed is called the ''apex'' of the solid angle, and the object is said to ''Subtended angle, subtend'' its solid angle at that point. In the International System of Units (SI), a solid angle is expressed in a dimensionless quantity, dimensionless unit of measurement, unit called a ''steradian'' (symbol: sr). One steradian corresponds to one unit of area on the unit sphere surrounding the apex, so an object that blocks all rays from the apex would cover a number of steradians equal to the total surface area of the unit sphere, 4\pi. Solid angles can also be measured in squares of angular measures such as Square degree, degrees, minutes, and seconds. A small object nearby may subtend the same solid angle as a l ...
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