Localization Of A Category
In mathematics, localization of a category consists of adding to a category inverse morphisms for some collection of morphisms, constraining them to become isomorphisms. This is formally similar to the process of localization of a ring; it in general makes objects isomorphic that were not so before. In homotopy theory, for example, there are many examples of mappings that are invertible up to homotopy; and so large classes of homotopy equivalent spaces. Calculus of fractions is another name for working in a localized category. Introduction and motivation A category ''C'' consists of objects and morphisms between these objects. The morphisms reflect relations between the objects. In many situations, it is meaningful to replace ''C'' by another category ''C in which certain morphisms are forced to be isomorphisms. This process is called localization. For example, in the category of ''R'' modules (for some fixed commutative ring ''R'') the multiplication by a fixed element ''r'' of ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Proper Class
Proper may refer to: Mathematics * Proper map, in topology, a property of continuous function between topological spaces, if inverse images of compact subsets are compact * Proper morphism, in algebraic geometry, an analogue of a proper map for algebraic varieties * Proper transfer function, a transfer function in control theory in which the degree of the numerator does not exceed the degree of the denominator * Proper equilibrium, in game theory, a refinement of the Nash equilibrium * Proper subset * Proper space * Proper complex random variable Other uses * Proper (liturgy), the part of a Christian liturgy that is specific to the date within the Liturgical Year * Proper frame, such system of reference in which object is stationary (non moving), sometimes also called a comoving frame * Proper (heraldry), in heraldry, means depicted in natural colors * Proper Records, a UK record label * Proper (album), an album by Into It. Over It. released in 2011 * Proper (often capi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Derived Category
In mathematics, the derived category ''D''(''A'') of an abelian category ''A'' is a construction of homological algebra introduced to refine and in a certain sense to simplify the theory of derived functors defined on ''A''. The construction proceeds on the basis that the objects of ''D''(''A'') should be chain complexes in ''A'', with two such chain complexes considered isomorphic when there is a chain map that induces an isomorphism on the level of homology of the chain complexes. Derived functors can then be defined for chain complexes, refining the concept of hypercohomology. The definitions lead to a significant simplification of formulas otherwise described (not completely faithfully) by complicated spectral sequences. The development of the derived category, by Alexander Grothendieck and his student JeanLouis Verdier shortly after 1960, now appears as one terminal point in the explosive development of homological algebra in the 1950s, a decade in which it had made rema ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Iwasawa Theory
In number theory, Iwasawa theory is the study of objects of arithmetic interest over infinite towers of number fields. It began as a Galois module theory of ideal class groups, initiated by (), as part of the theory of cyclotomic fields. In the early 1970s, Barry Mazur considered generalizations of Iwasawa theory to abelian varieties. More recently (early 1990s), Ralph Greenberg has proposed an Iwasawa theory for motives. Formulation Iwasawa worked with socalled \Z_pextensions  infinite extensions of a number field F with Galois group \Gamma isomorphic to the additive group of padic integers for some prime ''p''. (These were called \Gammaextensions in early papers.) Every closed subgroup of \Gamma is of the form \Gamma^, so by Galois theory, a \Z_pextension F_\infty/F is the same thing as a tower of fields :F=F_0 \subset F_1 \subset F_2 \subset \cdots \subset F_\infty such that \operatorname(F_n/F)\cong \Z/p^n\Z. Iwasawa studied classical Galois modules over F_n by as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Support Of A Module
In commutative algebra, the support of a module ''M'' over a commutative ring ''A'' is the set of all prime ideals \mathfrak of ''A'' such that M_\mathfrak \ne 0 (that is, the localization of ''M'' at \mathfrak is not equal to zero). It is denoted by \operatornameM. The support is, by definition, a subset of the spectrum of ''A''. Properties * M = 0 if and only if its support is empty. * Let 0 \to M' \to M \to M'' \to 0 be a short exact sequence of ''A''modules. Then *:\operatornameM = \operatornameM' \cup \operatornameM''. :Note that this union may not be a disjoint union. * If M is a sum of submodules M_\lambda, then \operatornameM = \bigcup_\lambda \operatornameM_\lambda. * If M is a finitely generated ''A''module, then \operatornameM is the set of all prime ideals containing the annihilator of ''M''. In particular, it is closed in the Zariski topology on Spec ''A''. *If M, N are finitely generated ''A''modules, then *:\operatorname(M \otimes_A N) = \operatorname ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Krull Dimension
In commutative algebra, the Krull dimension of a commutative ring ''R'', named after Wolfgang Krull, is the supremum of the lengths of all chains of prime ideals. The Krull dimension need not be finite even for a Noetherian ring. More generally the Krull dimension can be defined for modules over possibly noncommutative rings as the deviation of the poset of submodules. The Krull dimension was introduced to provide an algebraic definition of the dimension of an algebraic variety: the dimension of the affine variety defined by an ideal ''I'' in a polynomial ring ''R'' is the Krull dimension of ''R''/''I''. A field ''k'' has Krull dimension 0; more generally, ''k'' 'x''1, ..., ''x''''n''has Krull dimension ''n''. A principal ideal domain that is not a field has Krull dimension 1. A local ring has Krull dimension 0 if and only if every element of its maximal ideal is nilpotent. There are several other ways that have been used to define the dimension of a ring. Most of them coinci ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutative Ring
In mathematics, a commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative. The study of commutative rings is called commutative algebra. Complementarily, noncommutative algebra is the study of ring properties that are not specific to commutative rings. This distinction results from the high number of fundamental properties of commutative rings that do not extend to noncommutative rings. Definition and first examples Definition A ''ring'' is a set R equipped with two binary operations, i.e. operations combining any two elements of the ring to a third. They are called ''addition'' and ''multiplication'' and commonly denoted by "+" and "\cdot"; e.g. a+b and a \cdot b. To form a ring these two operations have to satisfy a number of properties: the ring has to be an abelian group under addition as well as a monoid under multiplication, where multiplication distributes over addition; i.e., a \cdot \left(b + c\right) = \left(a \cdot b\right) + \left(a \c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Group
In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of an abelian group underlies many fundamental algebraic structures, such as fields, rings, vector spaces, and algebras. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their nonabelian counterparts, and finite abelian groups are very well understood and fully classified. Definition An abelian group is a set A, together with an operation \cdot that combines any two elements a and b of A to form another element of A, denoted a \cdot b. The ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ideal (ring Theory)
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, an ideal of a ring is a special subset of its elements. Ideals generalize certain subsets of the integers, such as the even numbers or the multiples of 3. Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness, and multiplying an even number by any integer (even or odd) results in an even number; these closure and absorption properties are the defining properties of an ideal. An ideal can be used to construct a quotient ring in a way similar to how, in group theory, a normal subgroup can be used to construct a quotient group. Among the integers, the ideals correspond oneforone with the nonnegative integers: in this ring, every ideal is a principal ideal consisting of the multiples of a single nonnegative number. However, in other rings, the ideals may not correspond directly to the ring elements, and certain properties of integers, when generalized to rings, attach more naturally to the ideals than to the elements of the r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

JeanPierre Serre
JeanPierre Serre (; born 15 September 1926) is a French mathematician who has made contributions to algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, and algebraic number theory. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1954, the Wolf Prize in 2000 and the inaugural Abel Prize in 2003. Biography Personal life Born in Bages, PyrénéesOrientales, France, to pharmacist parents, Serre was educated at the Lycée de Nîmes and then from 1945 to 1948 at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He was awarded his doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1951. From 1948 to 1954 he held positions at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris. In 1956 he was elected professor at the Collège de France, a position he held until his retirement in 1994. His wife, Professor Josiane HeulotSerre, was a chemist; she also was the director of the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Jeunes Filles. Their daughter is the former French diplomat, historian and writer Claudine Monteil. The French mathematician Denis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Endofunctor
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a functor is a mapping between categories. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects (such as the fundamental group) are associated to topological spaces, and maps between these algebraic objects are associated to continuous maps between spaces. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. Thus, functors are important in all areas within mathematics to which category theory is applied. The words ''category'' and ''functor'' were borrowed by mathematicians from the philosophers Aristotle and Rudolf Carnap, respectively. The latter used ''functor'' in a linguistic context; see function word. Definition Let ''C'' and ''D'' be categories. A functor ''F'' from ''C'' to ''D'' is a mapping that * associates each object X in ''C'' to an object F(X) in ''D'', * associates each morphism f \colon X \to Y in ''C'' to a morphism F(f) \colon F(X) \to F(Y) in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Idempotent
Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science whereby they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application. The concept of idempotence arises in a number of places in abstract algebra (in particular, in the theory of projectors and closure operators) and functional programming (in which it is connected to the property of referential transparency). The term was introduced by American mathematician Benjamin Peirce in 1870 in the context of elements of algebras that remain invariant when raised to a positive integer power, and literally means "(the quality of having) the same power", from + '' potence'' (same + power). Definition An element x of a set S equipped with a binary operator \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' under \cdot if : . The ''binary operation'' \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' if : . Examples * In the monoid (\mathbb, \times) of the natural numbers with multiplication, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 