List Of The 72 Names On The Eiffel Tower
On the Eiffel Tower, 72 names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions. Gustave Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the protests against the tower. The engravings are found on the sides of the tower under the first balcony, in letters about tall, and originally painted in gold. The engraving was painted over at the beginning of the 20th century and restored in 1986â€“87 by SociÃ©tÃ© Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, the company that the city of Paris contracts to operate the Tower. The repainting of 2010â€“11 restored the letters to their original gold colour. There are also names of the engineers who helped build the Tower and design its architecture on a plaque on the top of the Tower, where a laboratory was built as well. List Location The list is split in four parts (for each side of the tower). The sides have been named after the parts of Paris that each side faces: ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Eiffel Tower (72 Names)
The Eiffel Tower ( ; french: links=yes, tour Eiffel ) is a wroughtiron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed "''La dame de fer''" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the centerpiece of the Exposition Universelle (1889), 1889 World's Fair. Although initially criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, it has since become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. The tower received 5,889,000 visitors in 2022, up by 197 percent from 2021, when numbers dropped due to the COVID virus. The Eiffel Tower is the most visited monument with an entrance fee in the world: 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. It was designated a ''monument historique'' in 1964, and was named part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site ("Paris, Banks of the Seine") ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Joseph Fourier
JeanBaptiste Joseph Fourier (; ; 21 March 1768 â€“ 16 May 1830) was a French people, French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series, which eventually developed into Fourier analysis and harmonic analysis, and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Thermal conduction#Fourier.27s law, Fourier's law of conduction are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect. Biography Fourier was born at Auxerre (now in the Yonne dÃ©partement of France), the son of a tailor. He was orphaned at the age of nine. Fourier was recommended to the Bishop of Auxerre and, through this introduction, he was educated by the Benedictine Order of the Convent of St. Mark. The commissions in the scientific corps of the army were reserved for those of good birth, and being thus ineligible, he accepted a military lectureship on mathema ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

JacquesJoseph Ebelmen
JacquesJoseph Ã‰belmen (10 July 1814 â€“ 31 March 1852) was a French chemist. He was the son of Claude Louis Ã‰belmen, a forest surveyor, and Jeanne Claude Grenier. He attended classes in grammar and literature at the Language School at Baume. Thereafter he grew interested in the Sciences and attended the elementary mathematics classes in Paris at CollÃ¨ge Royal HenryLeGrand, and applied mathematics at the LycÃ©e de BesanÃ§on. He then enrolled at the Ã‰cole Polytechnique in 1831. In 1836 he was sent to Vesoul as a mining engineer, and began studying the different ores at FrancheComtÃ©, where his reputation grew, growing artificial crystals of a number of minerals including corundum, chrysoberyl and peridot. He stayed there for four years, before committing himself in 1841 as assistant secretary of Committee of the Annales des Mines and a lecturer of chemistry at Ã‰cole Polytechnique. In December 1845 he became Chief Engineer of Mines of the SÃ¨vres porcelain manufactory an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Louis Vicat
Louis Vicat (31 March 1786, Nevers â€“ 10 April 1861, Grenoble) was a French engineer. He graduated from the Ã‰cole Polytechnique in 1804 and the Ã‰cole des Ponts et ChaussÃ©es in 1806. Vicat studied the setting of mortars and developed his own. The first building using it is the bridge at Souillac (Dordogne), erected in 1818. The material was popular but was superseded by Portland cement. He also invented the Vicat needle that is still in use for determining the setting time of concretes and cements. His son Joseph Vicat founded Vicat Cement, which is today a large international cement manufacturing company. He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and his name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Vicat was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (abbreviation: AAA&S) is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. It was founded in 1780 during the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaspard De Prony
Baron Gaspard Clair FranÃ§ois Marie Riche de Prony (22 July 1755 – 29 July 1839) was a French mathematician and engineer, who worked on hydraulics. He was born at Chamelet, Beaujolais, France and died in AsniÃ¨ressurSeine, France. Education and early works He was EngineerinChief of the Ã‰cole Nationale des Ponts et ChaussÃ©es. The trigonometric and logarithmic tables of the cadastre In 1791, de Prony embarked on the task of producing logarithmic and trigonometric tables for the French Cadastre. The effort was sanctioned by the French National Assembly, which, after the French Revolution wanted to bring uniformity to the multiple measurements and standards used throughout the nation. In particular, his tables were intended for precise land surveys, as part of a greater cadastre effort. The tables were vast, calculating logarithms from 1 to 200,000, with values calculated to between fourteen and twentynine decimal places, (which de Prony recognized was excessively pre ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

AugustinJean Fresnel
AugustinJean Fresnel (10 May 1788 â€“ 14 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Isaac Newton, Newton's corpuscular theory of light, corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century. He is perhaps better known for inventing the Catadioptric system, catadioptric (reflective/refractive) Fresnel lens and for pioneering the use of "stepped" lenses to extend the visibility of lighthouses, saving countless lives at sea. The simpler Dioptrics, dioptric (purely refractive) stepped lens, first proposed by GeorgesLouis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Count Buffon and independently reinvented by Fresnel, is used in screen magnifying glass, magnifiers and in condenser lenses for overhead projectors. By expressing Christiaan Huygens, Huygens's principle of secondary waves and Thomas Young (scientist), Young's principle of interference ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Henri Victor Regnault
Henri Victor Regnault (21 July 1810 â€“ 19 January 1878) was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. He was an early thermodynamicist and was mentor to William Thomson in the late 1840s. He never used his first given name, and was known throughout his lifetime as Victor Regnault. Biography Born in AixlaChapelle in 1810 (modern Aachen, Germany and at that time under French rule), he moved to Paris at the age of eight, following the death of his parents. There, he worked for an upholstery firm until he was eighteen. In 1830, he was admitted to the Ã‰cole Polytechnique, and in 1832 he graduated from the Ã‰cole des mines. Working under Justus von Liebig at GieÃŸen, Regnault distinguished himself in the nascent field of organic chemistry by synthesizing several chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. vinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, dichloromethane), and he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Univers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

EugÃ¨ne Belgrand
EugÃ¨ne Belgrand (23 April 1810 – 8 April 1878) was a French engineer who made significant contributions to the modernization of the Parisian sewer system during the 19th century rebuilding of Paris. Much of Belgrand's work remains in use today. Civil engineering Prior to 1850, the water system in Paris was inadequate for its growing population. Waste water was discharged into the Seine, a primary source of the critically limited supply of drinking water. Baron Haussmann, tasked by NapolÃ©on III to modernize the city, appointed Belgrand as Director of Water and Sewers of Paris in March 1855. Hausmann had been impressed by the Ã‰cole Polytechnique graduate's application of geology to water engineering during the design of a fountain in Avallon and he became an engineer from the Ponts et ChaussÃ©es School and integrated the Yonne technical services in Avallon in 1849. He studied the ancient languages. Belgrand embarked on an ambitious project. The tunnels he designed we ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

AugustinLouis Cauchy
Baron AugustinLouis Cauchy (, ; ; 21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was one of the first to state and rigorously prove theorems of calculus, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy had a great influence over his contemporaries and successors; Hans Freudenthal stated: "More concepts and theorems have been named for Cauchy than for any other mathematician (in elasticity alone there are sixteen concepts and theorems named for Cauchy)." Cauchy was a prolific writer; he wrote approximately eight hundred research articles and five complete textbooks on a variety of topics in the fields of mathematics and mathematical physics. B ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ã‰cole Militaire , a Japanese videogames developer/publisher
{{disambiguation, geo ...
Ã‰cole may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages normally followed by secondary education establishments (collÃ¨ge and lycÃ©e) * Ã‰cole (river), a tributary of the Seine flowing in rÃ©gion ÃŽledeFrance * Ã‰cole, Savoie, a French commune * Ã‰coleValentin, a French commune in the Doubs dÃ©partement * Grandes Ã©coles, higher education establishments in France * The Ã‰cole, a FrenchAmerican bilingual school in New York City Ecole may refer to: * Ecole Software This is a list of Notability, notable video game companies that have made games for either computers (like PC or Mac), video game consoles, handheld or mobile devices, and includes companies that currently exist as well as nowdefunct companies. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gabriel LamÃ©
Gabriel LamÃ© (22 July 1795 â€“ 1 May 1870) was a French mathematician who contributed to the theory of partial differential equations by the use of curvilinear coordinates, and the mathematical theory of elasticity (for which linear elasticity and finite strain theory elaborate the mathematical abstractions). Biography LamÃ© was born in Tours, in today's ''dÃ©partement'' of IndreetLoire. He became well known for his general theory of curvilinear coordinates and his notation and study of classes of ellipselike curves, now known as LamÃ© curves or superellipses, and defined by the equation: : \left, \,\,\^n + \left, \,\,\^n =1 where ''n'' is any positive real number. He is also known for his running time analysis of the Euclidean algorithm, marking the beginning of computational complexity theory. Using Fibonacci numbers, he proved that when finding the greatest common divisor of integers ''a'' and ''b'', the algorithm runs in no more than 5''k'' steps, where ''k'' is the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lazare Carnot
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot (; 13 May 1753 â€“ 2 August 1823) was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the "Organizer of Victory" in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. Education and early life Carnot was born on 13 May 1753 in the village of Nolay, in Burgundy, as the son of a local judge and royal notary, Claude Carnot and his wife, Marguerite Pothier. He was the second oldest of seven children. At the age of fourteen, Lazare and his brother were enrolled at the ''CollÃ¨ge d'Autun'', where he focused on the study of philosophy and the classics. He held a strong belief in stoic philosophy and was deeply influenced by Roman civilization. When he turned fifteen, he left school in Autun to strengthen his philosophical knowledge and study under the Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice. During his short time with them, he studied logic, mathematics and theology under the Abbe Bison. After being impressed with Lazare's work a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 