Lagrange
JosephLouis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Luigi LagrangiaJosephLouis Lagrange, comte de lâ€™Empire ''EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica'' or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier; 25 January 1736 â€“ 10 April 1813), also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia, was an and , later naturalized [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Things Named After JosephLouis Lagrange
Several concepts from mathematics and physics are named after the mathematician and astronomer JosephLouis Lagrange, as are a crater on the moon and a street in Paris. Lagrangian * Lagrangian analysis *Lagrangian coordinates * Lagrangian derivative * Lagrangian drifter * Lagrangian foliation * Lagrangian Grassmannian * Lagrangian intersection Floer homology *Lagrangian mechanics **Relativistic Lagrangian mechanics *Lagrangian (field theory) *Lagrangian system * Lagrangian mixing * Lagrangian point *Lagrangian relaxation *Lagrangian submanifold * Lagrangian subspace * Nonlocal Lagrangian * Proca lagrangian * Special Lagrangian submanifold Lagrange *Eulerâ€“Lagrange equation * Greenâ€“Lagrange strain *Lagrange bracket *Lagrangeâ€“BÃ¼rmann formula * Lagrangeâ€“d'Alembert principle * Lagrange error bound * Lagrange form * Lagrange form of the remainder *Lagrange interpolation *Lagrange invariant *Lagrange inversion theorem *Lagrange multiplier **Augmented Lagrangian method *Lagran ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus Of Variations
The calculus of variations (or Variational Calculus) is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions and functionals, to find maxima and minima of functionals: mappings from a set of functions to the real numbers. Functionals are often expressed as definite integrals involving functions and their derivatives. Functions that maximize or minimize functionals may be found using the Eulerâ€“Lagrange equation of the calculus of variations. A simple example of such a problem is to find the curve of shortest length connecting two points. If there are no constraints, the solution is a straight line between the points. However, if the curve is constrained to lie on a surface in space, then the solution is less obvious, and possibly many solutions may exist. Such solutions are known as ''geodesics''. A related problem is posed by Fermat's principle: light follows the path of shortest optical length connecting two points, which depends up ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

SimÃ©on Denis Poisson
Baron SimÃ©on Denis Poisson FRS FRSE (; 21 June 1781 â€“ 25 April 1840) was a French mathematician and physicist who worked on statistics, complex analysis, partial differential equations, the calculus of variations, analytical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, elasticity, and fluid mechanics. Moreover, he predicted the Poisson spot in his attempt to disprove the wave theory of AugustinJean Fresnel, which was later confirmed. Biography Poisson was born in Pithiviers, Loiret district in France, the son of SimÃ©on Poisson, an officer in the French army. In 1798, he entered the Ã‰cole Polytechnique in Paris as first in his year, and immediately began to attract the notice of the professors of the school, who left him free to make his own decisions as to what he would study. In his final year of study, less than two years after his entry, he published two memoirs, one on Ã‰tienne BÃ©zout's method of elimination, the other on the number of integrals of a finite di ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and arithmetic function, integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777â€“1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciencesâ€”and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die KÃ¶nigin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die KÃ¶nigin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of Complex analysis, analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analytical Mechanics
In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics. It was developed by many scientists and mathematicians during the 18th century and onward, after Newtonian mechanics. Since Newtonian mechanics considers vector quantities of motion, particularly accelerations, momenta, forces, of the constituents of the system, an alternative name for the mechanics governed by Newton's laws and Euler's laws is ''vectorial mechanics''. By contrast, analytical mechanics uses '' scalar'' properties of motion representing the system as a wholeâ€”usually its total kinetic energy and potential energyâ€”not Newton's vectorial forces of individual particles. A scalar is a quantity, whereas a vector is represented by quantity and direction. The equations of motion are derived from the scalar quantity by some underlying principle about the scalar's variation. Analytical mec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and arithmetic function, integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777â€“1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciencesâ€”and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die KÃ¶nigin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die KÃ¶nigin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of Complex analysis, analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Celestial Mechanics
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of objects in outer space. Historically, celestial mechanics applies principles of physics (classical mechanics) to astronomical objects, such as stars and planets, to produce ephemeris data. History Modern analytic celestial mechanics started with Isaac Newton's Principia of 1687. The name "celestial mechanics" is more recent than that. Newton wrote that the field should be called "rational mechanics." The term "dynamics" came in a little later with Gottfried Leibniz, and over a century after Newton, PierreSimon Laplace introduced the term "celestial mechanics." Prior to Kepler there was little connection between exact, quantitative prediction of planetary positions, using geometrical or arithmetical techniques, and contemporary discussions of the physical causes of the planets' motion. Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) was the first to closely integrate the predictive geom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Joseph Fourier
JeanBaptiste Joseph Fourier (; ; 21 March 1768 â€“ 16 May 1830) was a French people, French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series, which eventually developed into Fourier analysis and harmonic analysis, and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Thermal conduction#Fourier.27s law, Fourier's law of conduction are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect. Biography Fourier was born at Auxerre (now in the Yonne dÃ©partement of France), the son of a tailor. He was orphaned at the age of nine. Fourier was recommended to the Bishop of Auxerre and, through this introduction, he was educated by the Benedictine Order of the Convent of St. Mark. The commissions in the scientific corps of the army were reserved for those of good birth, and being thus ineligible, he accepted a military lectureship on mathema ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ã‰variste Galois
Ã‰variste Galois (; ; 25 October 1811 â€“ 31 May 1832) was a French mathematician and political activist. While still in his teens, he was able to determine a necessary and sufficient condition for a polynomial to be solvable by radicals, thereby solving a problem that had been open for 350 years. His work laid the foundations for Galois theory and group theory, two major branches of abstract algebra. He was a staunch republican and was heavily involved in the political turmoil that surrounded the French Revolution of 1830. As a result of his political activism, he was arrested repeatedly, serving one jail sentence of several months. For reasons that remain obscure, shortly after his release from prison he fought in a duel and died of the wounds he suffered. Life Early life Galois was born on 25 October 1811 to NicolasGabriel Galois and AdÃ©laÃ¯deMarie (nÃ©e Demante). His father was a Republican and was head of BourglaReine's liberal party. His father became may ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana (6 November 1781 – 20 January 1864) was an Italian astronomer and mathematician. He is considered one of the premiere Italian scientists of his age. The crater Plana on the Moon is named in his honor. Biography Plana was born in Voghera, Italy to Antonio Maria Plana and Giovanna Giacoboni. At the age of 15 he was sent to live with his uncles in Grenoble to complete his education. In 1800 he entered the Ã‰cole Polytechnique, and was one of the students of JosephLouis Lagrange. Joseph Fourier, impressed by Plana's abilities, managed to have him appointed to the chair of mathematics in a school of artillery in Piedmont in 1803, which came under the control of the French in 1805. In 1811 he was appointed to the chair of astronomy at the University of Turin thanks to the influence of Lagrange. He spent the remainder of his life teaching at that institution. Plana's contributions included work on the motions of the Moon, as well as integrals, (inclu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Turin
Turin ( , Piedmontese language, Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in Northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is mainly on the western bank of the Po (river), Po River, below its Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alps, Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 847,287 (31 January 2022) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Larger Urban Zones, Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city used to be a major European political centre. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the House of Savoy, and the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1865. T ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler ( , ; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and infinitesimal calculus. He introduced much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy and music theory. Euler is held to be one of the greatest mathematicians in history and the greatest of the 18th century. A statement attributed to PierreSimon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all." Carl Friedrich Gauss remarked: "The study of Euler's works will remain the best school for the different fields of mathematics, and nothing else can replace it." Euler is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 