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Kuninda
upright=1.5|Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. 1st century BCE. These coins followed the Indo-Greek module.Obv: Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by [[Lakshmi holding a [[Sacred lotus">lotus flower. Legend in [[Prakrit ([[Brāhmī script|Brahmi script, from left to right): ''Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya'' ("Great King [[Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas").Rev: [[Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a "Y" symbol, and a tree in railing. Legend in Kharoshti script, from right to left: ''Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa'', ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas"). File:Shiva with trident Kuninda 2nd century.jpg|Shiva with trident, Kuninda, 2nd century CE. The Kingdom of Kuninda (or Kulinda in ancient literature) was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom documented from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in norther ...
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Kunindas With Shiva
upright=1.5|Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. 1st century BCE. These coins followed the Indo-Greek module.Obv: Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by [[Lakshmi holding a [[Sacred lotus">lotus flower. Legend in [[Prakrit ([[Brāhmī script|Brahmi script, from left to right): ''Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya'' ("Great King [[Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas").Rev: [[Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a "Y" symbol, and a tree in railing. Legend in Kharoshti script, from right to left: ''Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa'', ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas"). File:Shiva with trident Kuninda 2nd century.jpg|Shiva with trident, Kuninda, 2nd century CE. The Kingdom of Kuninda (or Kulinda in ancient literature) was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom documented from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in norther ...
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Kunindas Coin With Chaitya
upright=1.5|Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. 1st century BCE. These coins followed the Indo-Greek module.Obv: Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by [[Lakshmi holding a [[Sacred lotus">lotus flower. Legend in [[Prakrit ([[Brāhmī script|Brahmi script, from left to right): ''Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya'' ("Great King [[Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas").Rev: [[Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a "Y" symbol, and a tree in railing. Legend in Kharoshti script, from right to left: ''Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa'', ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas"). File:Shiva with trident Kuninda 2nd century.jpg|Shiva with trident, Kuninda, 2nd century CE. The Kingdom of Kuninda (or Kulinda in ancient literature) was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom documented from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in norther ...
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Amoghabhuti
Amogh was a king of the Kuninda Kingdom in northern India, during the late 2nd century BCE to 1st century BCE. He is well known for his beautiful silver and copper coinage where his name is mentioned, along with his title, ''Maharaja''. His silver coinage followed the silver standard of the Indo-Greek coins, suggesting the existence of commercial exchanges with these neighbours. The obverse of his silver coins bears a legend in Brahmi: ''Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya'' and the reverse bears a legend in Kharoshti: ''Rana Kunindasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa''. His copper coins bear on the obverse the same Brahmi legend as his silver issues but the Kharoshti legend on the obverse is replaced by a border of dots.Asoke Kumar Bhattacharyyam''A pageant of Indian culture: art and archaeology'' p. 156''ff''/ref> King Amogh was a follower of the Buddhist faith, as indicated by the representation of the Buddhist triratana on his coins. Notes References #{{cite book | last ...
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Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand (), formerly known as Uttaranchal (), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devabhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to numerous Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabar and the Terai regions. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north; the Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal to the east; the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon with a total of 13 districts. The winter capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, which is a rail head. Gairsain, a town in Chamoli district is the summer capital of Uttarakhand. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times. The region formed a part ...
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Triratna
The Triratna ( pi| or ; sa| or ) is a Buddhist symbol, thought to visually represent the Three Jewels of Buddhism (the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha). Symbol The Triratna symbol is composed of: * A lotus flower within a circle. * A diamond rod, or vajra. * An ananda-chakra. * A trident, or trisula, with three branches, representing the threefold jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha. On representations of the footprint of the Buddha, the Triratna is usually also surmounted by the Dharma wheel. The Triratna can be found on frieze sculptures at Sanchi as the symbol crowning a flag standard (2nd century BCE), as a symbol of the Buddha installed on the Buddha's throne (2nd century BCE), as the crowning decorative symbol on the later gates at the stupa in Sanchi (2nd century CE), or, very often on the Buddha footprint (starting from the 1st century CE). The triratna can be further reinforced by being surmounted with three dharma wheels (one for each of the thre ...
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Vemaka
The Vemaka were an ancient Indian tribe, located north of the larger tribe of the Kuninda in northern India. They are known from some of their coins. The silver coins of the Kunindas, the Vemakas and the Audumbaras closely follow the coins of the Indo-Greek king Apollodotus II in their characteristics (weight, size and material).Rapson, E. J., 'Ancient India, from the earliest times to the first century, A.D', p.155. Cambridge University Press 1914. References External links {{India-ethno-stub Category:History of Uttarakhand Category:Bactrian and Indian Hellenistic period ...
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Yaudheyas
Yaudheya or Yoddheya Gana (Yoddheya Republic) was an ancient militant confederation. The word Yaudheya is a derivative of the word from yodha meaning warriors.“Yaudheyas.” Ancient Communities of the Himalaya, by Dinesh Prasad. Saklani, Indus Pub. Co., 1998, pp. 112–115. They were principally kshatriya renowned for their skills in warfare, as inscribed in the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman by the Indo-Scythian ruler Rudradaman of the Western Satraps. The Yaudheyas emerged in the 5th century BCE and governed independently until being incorporated into the Maurya Empire. Following the disintegration of the Maurya Empire, the Yaudheyas regained autonomy and ruled as contemporaries to the Shunga Empire and Indo-Greek Kingdoms, and minted their own coinage. However, they were conquered by the Kshatraps led by Rudradaman, and although briefly winning independence, they were then annexed by the Kushan Empire under Kanishka. The Yaudheya Republic reformed and flourished up to t ...
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Audumbaras
300px|Silver coin of a "King Vrishni" of the Audumbaras.Obv Pillar with half-lion and half-elephant, surmounted by a [[Triratna symbol and surrounded by [[Buddhist railing. Indian legend ''Vṛishṇi Raja jnâgaṇyasya blubharasya''Rev Large [[Dharmachakra symbol. Arian legend ''Vrishni Raja jnâganyasya blubharasya''.Alexander Cunningham's ''Coins of Ancient India: From the Earliest Times Down to the Seventh Century'' (1891) p.7/ref> The Audumbras, or Audumbaras were a north Indian tribal nation east of the Punjab region|Punjab, in the Western Himalaya region. They were the most important tribe of the Himachal, and lived in the lower hills between Sirmaur, Chamba and Yamuna. They issued coinage from the 1st century BCE, when they seemingly gained independence from the Indo-Greeks. The silver coins of the Kunindas, the Vemakas and the Audumbaras closely follow the coins of Apollodotus II in their characteristics (weight, size and material). Their coins are found in the area of P ...
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Yaudheya
Yaudheya or Yoddheya Gana (Yoddheya Republic) was an ancient militant confederation. The word Yaudheya is a derivative of the word from yodha meaning warriors.“Yaudheyas.” Ancient Communities of the Himalaya, by Dinesh Prasad. Saklani, Indus Pub. Co., 1998, pp. 112–115. They were principally kshatriya renowned for their skills in warfare, as inscribed in the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman by the Indo-Scythian ruler Rudradaman of the Western Satraps. The Yaudheyas emerged in the 5th century BCE and governed independently until being incorporated into the Maurya Empire. Following the disintegration of the Maurya Empire, the Yaudheyas regained autonomy and ruled as contemporaries to the Shunga Empire and Indo-Greek Kingdoms, and minted their own coinage. However, they were conquered by the Kshatraps led by Rudradaman, and although briefly winning independence, they were then annexed by the Kushan Empire under Kanishka. The Yaudheya Republic reformed and flourished up to t ...
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Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I Soter (Greek: ; the epithet means the "Saviour"; Prakrit in the Kharoshti script: ''maharajasa apaladatasa tratarasa'') was an Indo-Greek king between 180 BCE and 160 BCE or between 174 and 165 BCE (first dating Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, second dating Boperachchi) who ruled the western and southern parts of the Indo-Greek kingdom, from Taxila in Punjab to the areas of Sindh and possibly Gujarat. Ruler of the Indo-Greek kingdom Apollodotus was not the first to strike bilingual coins outside Bactria, but he was the first king who ruled in India only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom. According to W. W. Tarn, Apollodotus I was one of the generals of Demetrius I of Bactria, the Greco-Bactrian king who invaded northwestern India after 180 BCE. Tarn was uncertain whether he was a member of the royal house. Later authors largely agree with Tarn's analysis, though with perhaps even more uncertainty regarding who the king was, for ...
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Arjunayana
Arjunayana, Arjunavana, Arjunavayana or Arjunayanaka was an ancient republican people located in Punjab or north-eastern Rajasthan. They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period (). In the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta (), the Arjunayanas figure among the autonomous political communities bordering on the Gupta Empire who accepted the overlordship of Samudragupta. They are also mentioned in Bṛhat Saṃhitā of Varahamihira (6th century CE).Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 110, Buddha Prakash. According to Dr Buddha Prakash, the Arjunayanas are mentioned as Prajjunakas in Kautiliya's text Arthashastra which also places them in the northern division of India. Vincent Smith locates their republic in Alwar and Bharatpur states now in Rajasthan, a view which has been rejected by R. C. Majumdar. They are mentioned in the literary sources in Afghanistan from 4th century BCE and after Alexander's invasions in 3rd century they have been m ...
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Vrishni
The Vrishnis were an ancient vedic Indian clan who were believed to be the descendants of Vrishni,the ancestor of Yadu. It is believed that Vrishni was father of Satvata, a ancestor of Yadu, the son of Yayati. He had two wives, Gandhari and Madri. He has a son named Devamidhusha by his wife Madri. Vasudeva, the father of Krishna was the grandson of Devamidhusha. According to the Puranas, the Vrishnis were residents of Dvaraka. Migration of Vrishnis to Dvaraka Jarasandha, father-in-law of Kamsa, invaded Mathura with a vast army; and though Krishna destroyed his army of demons, another asura, Kalayavan by name, surrounded Mathura with another army of thirty million monstrous fiends. Then Krishna thought it well to depart to Dwaraka.Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 Vrishni Family Tree The following chart shows the family tree of Krishna. *The members born to the family are linked wi ...
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Garhwal Kingdom
Garhwal Kingdom was an independent kingdom in the current north-western Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, India, founded in 823 AD by Kanak Pal, the progenitor of the Panwar dynasty that ruled over the kingdom uninterrupted until 1803. The kingdom was divided into two parts during the British Raj, namely: the princely state ''of Garhwal and'' the ''Garhwal District'' of British India. During this period, the princely state of Garhwal was one of the States of the Punjab Hills which became part of the Punjab Hill States Agency although it was not under the Punjab Province administration. The princely state of Garhwal or Independent Garhwal consisted of the present day Tehri Garhwal district and most of the Uttarkashi district. This former state acceded to the Union of India in August 1949. Etymology The exact origin of the word 'Garhwal' is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the title ‘''Garh-wala''’ (Owner of Forts) given to the ruler Ajay Pal, who is said to h ...
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Edicts Of Ashoka
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of more than thirty inscriptions on the pillars, as well as boulders and cave walls, attributed to Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire who reigned from 268 BCE to 232 BCE. Ashoka used the expression ''Dhaṃma Lipi'' (Prakrit in the Brahmi script: 𑀥𑀁𑀫𑀮𑀺𑀧𑀺, "Inscriptions of the Dharma") to describe his own Edicts. These inscriptions were dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan, and provide the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. The edicts describe in detail Ashoka's view about dhamma, an earnest attempt to solve some of the problems that a complex society faced. According to the edicts, the extent of Buddhist proselytism during this period reached as far as the Mediterranean, and many Buddhist monuments were created. These inscriptions proclaim Ashoka's adherence to the Buddhist philosophy which, as in Hinduism, is called dharma, "Law". The inscriptions show his ...
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