John Gamble Kirkwood
   HOME
*



picture info

John Gamble Kirkwood
John "Jack" Gamble Kirkwood (May 30, 1907, Gotebo, Oklahoma – August 9, 1959, New Haven, Connecticut) was a noted chemist and physicist, holding faculty positions at Cornell University, the University of Chicago, California Institute of Technology, and Yale University. Early life and background Kirkwood was born in Gotebo, Oklahoma, the oldest child of John Millard and Lillian Gamble Kirkwood. His father was educated as an attorney and was a distributor for the Goodyear Corporation in the state of Kansas. In addition to Jack Kirkwood, there were two younger sisters: Caroline (1910) and Margaret (1921). In 1909, the family moved to Wichita, Kansas. In the 1920s the family traveled to Pasadena, California to escape Midwestern winters. Education While in Pasadena, Kirkwood, age 15, audited chemistry classes at Caltech. Showing remarkable talent in mathematics and chemistry, Kirkwood was persuaded by A. A. Noyes to enroll at Caltech before finishing his high school educatio ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  




Gotebo, Oklahoma
Gotebo is a town in Kiowa County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 226 at the 2010 census, a decline of 16.9 percent from 272 in 2000. The town is named after the notable Kiowa Indian named Gotebo (1847 - 1927) (in Kiowa, ).Thurman, Marilyn"Gotebo,"''Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture'', Oklahoma Historical Society. Accessed February 17, 2016. History The town now known as Gotebo was originally named Harrison (honoring President Benjamin Harrison) when it was founded in August 1901, during the opening of the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Reservation. A railroad station had been built nearby a few months before, which officials of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway had named Gotebo, in honor of a well-respected Kiowa chief. He was one of the first Kiowa baptized at the Rainy Mountain Church, and was buried at the Rainy Mountain Indian Cemetery, between Gotebo and Mountain View. The name of the post office was soon changed from Harrison to Gotebo, an ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Peter Debye
Peter Joseph William Debye (; ; March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry. Biography Early life Born Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije in Maastricht, Netherlands, Debye enrolled in the Aachen University of Technology in 1901. In 1905, he completed his first degree in electrical engineering. He published his first paper, a mathematically elegant solution of a problem involving eddy currents, in 1907. At Aachen, he studied under the theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfeld, who later claimed that his most important discovery was Peter Debye. In 1906, Sommerfeld received an appointment at Munich, Bavaria, and took Debye with him as his assistant. Debye got his Ph.D. with a dissertation on radiation pressure in 1908. In 1910, he derived the Planck radiation formula using a method which Max Planck agreed was simpler than his own. In 1911, when Albert Einstein took an appointment as a professor at Prag ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

University Of Chicago Alumni
A university () is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United States, the designation is reserved for colleges that have a graduate school. The word ''university'' is derived from the Latin ''universitas magistrorum et scholarium'', which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars". The first universities were created in Europe by Catholic Church monks. The University of Bologna (''Università di Bologna''), founded in 1088, is the first university in the sense of: *Being a high degree-awarding institute. *Having independence from the ecclesiastic schools, although conducted by both clergy and non-clergy. *Using the word ''universitas'' (which was coined at its foundation). *Issuing secular and non-secular degrees: grammar, rhetoric, logic, theology, canon law, notarial law.Hunt Janin: "The university ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


California Institute Of Technology Alumni
California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the most populous U.S. state and the 3rd largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7million residents and the latter having over 9.6million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the M ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

People From Kiowa County, Oklahoma
A person ( : people) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility. The defining features of personhood and, consequently, what makes a person count as a person, differ widely among cultures and contexts. In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity and self: both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, and about what makes a person at one time the same person as they were or will be at another time despite any intervening changes. The plural form "people" is often used to refer to an entire nation or ethnic group (as in "a people"), and this was the original meaning of the word; it subsequently acquired its use as a plural form of ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

1959 Deaths
Events January * January 1 - Cuba: Fulgencio Batista flees Havana when the forces of Fidel Castro advance. * January 2 - Lunar probe Luna 1 was the first man-made object to attain escape velocity from Earth. It reached the vicinity of Earth's Moon, and was also the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit. * January 3 ** The three southernmost atolls of the Maldive archipelago (Addu Atoll, Huvadhu Atoll and Fuvahmulah island) declare independence. ** Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state. * January 4 ** In Cuba, rebel troops led by Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos enter the city of Havana. ** Léopoldville riots: At least 49 people are killed during clashes between the police and participants of a meeting of the ABAKO Party in Kinshasa, Léopoldville in the Belgian Congo. * January 6 ** Fidel Castro arrives in Havana. ** The International Maritime Organization is inaugurated. * January 7 – The United States recognizes the new Cuban government of Fi ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


1907 Births
Nineteen or 19 may refer to: * 19 (number), the natural number following 18 and preceding 20 * one of the years 19 BC, AD 19, 1919, 2019 Films * ''19'' (film), a 2001 Japanese film * ''Nineteen'' (film), a 1987 science fiction film Music * 19 (band), a Japanese pop music duo Albums * ''19'' (Adele album), 2008 * ''19'', a 2003 album by Alsou * ''19'', a 2006 album by Evan Yo * ''19'', a 2018 album by MHD * ''19'', one half of the double album ''63/19'' by Kool A.D. * '' Number Nineteen'', a 1971 album by American jazz pianist Mal Waldron * ''XIX'' (EP), a 2019 EP by 1the9 Songs * "19" (song), a 1985 song by British musician Paul Hardcastle. * "Nineteen", a song by Bad4Good from the 1992 album '' Refugee'' * "Nineteen", a song by Karma to Burn from the 2001 album ''Almost Heathen''. * "Nineteen" (song), a 2007 song by American singer Billy Ray Cyrus. * "Nineteen", a song by Tegan and Sara from the 2007 album '' The Con''. * "XIX" (song), a 2014 song by S ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Hydrodynamic Radius
The hydrodynamic radius of a macromolecule or colloid particle is R_. The macromolecule or colloid particle is a collection of N subparticles. This is done most commonly for polymers; the subparticles would then be the units of the polymer. R_ is defined by : \frac \ \stackrel\ \frac \left\langle \sum_ \frac \right\rangle where r_ is the distance between subparticles i and j, and where the angular brackets \langle \ldots \rangle represent an ensemble average. The theoretical hydrodynamic radius R_ was originally an estimate by John Gamble Kirkwood of the Stokes radius of a polymer, and some sources still use ''hydrodynamic radius'' as a synonym for the Stokes radius. Note that in biophysics, hydrodynamic radius refers to the Stokes radius, or commonly to the apparent Stokes radius obtained from size exclusion chromatography. The theoretical hydrodynamic radius R_ arises in the study of the dynamic properties of polymers moving in a solvent. It is often similar in magnitude ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  




BBGKY Hierarchy
In statistical physics, the BBGKY hierarchy (Bogoliubov–Born–Green–Kirkwood–Yvon hierarchy, sometimes called Bogoliubov hierarchy) is a set of equations describing the dynamics of a system of a large number of interacting particles. The equation for an ''s''-particle distribution function (probability density function) in the BBGKY hierarchy includes the (''s'' + 1)-particle distribution function, thus forming a coupled chain of equations. This formal theoretic result is named after Nikolay Bogolyubov, Max Born, Herbert S. Green, John Gamble Kirkwood, and Jacques Yvon. Formulation The evolution of an ''N''-particle system in absence of quantum fluctuations is given by the Liouville equation for the probability density function f_N = f_N(\mathbf_1 \dots \mathbf_N, \mathbf_1 \dots \mathbf_N, t) in 6''N''-dimensional phase space (3 space and 3 momentum coordinates per particle) : \frac + \sum_^N \frac \frac + \sum_^N \mathbf_i \frac = 0, where \mathbf_i, \mat ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Kirkwood–Buff Solution Theory
The Kirkwood–Buff (KB) solution theory, due to John G. Kirkwood and Frank P. Buff, links macroscopic (bulk) properties to microscopic (molecular) details. Using statistical mechanics, the KB theory derives thermodynamic quantities from pair correlation functions between all molecules in a multi-component solution. The KB theory proves to be a valuable tool for validation of molecular simulations, as well as for the molecular-resolution elucidation of the mechanisms underlying various physical processes. For example, it has numerous applications in biologically relevant systems. The reverse process is also possible; the so-called reverse Kirkwood–Buff (reverse-KB) theory, due to Arieh Ben-Naim, derives molecular details from thermodynamic (bulk) measurements. This advancement allows the use of the KB formalism to formulate predictions regarding microscopic properties on the basis of macroscopic information. The radial distribution function The radial distribution function ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Kirkwood Approximation
The Kirkwood superposition approximation was introduced in 1935 by John G. Kirkwood as a means of representing a discrete probability distribution. The Kirkwood approximation for a discrete probability density function P(x_,x_,\ldots ,x_) is given by : P^(x_1,x_2,\ldots ,x_n) = \prod_^\left prod_p(\mathcal_i)\right = \frac where : \prod_p(\mathcal_i) is the product of probabilities over all subsets of variables of size ''i'' in variable set \scriptstyle\mathcal. This kind of formula has been considered by Watanabe (1960) and, according to Watanabe, also by Robert Fano. For the three-variable case, it reduces to simply : P^\prime(x_1,x_2,x_3)=\frac The Kirkwood approximation does not generally produce a valid probability distribution (the normalization condition is violated). Watanabe claims that for this reason informational expressions of this type are not meaningful, and indeed there has been very little written about the properties of this measure. The Kirkwood approxi ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


ACS Award In Pure Chemistry
The American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry is awarded annually by the American Chemical Society (ACS) "to recognize and encourage fundamental research in pure chemistry carried out in North America by young men and women." "Young" means born within 35 years of the awarding of the Award, which takes place at the Spring meeting of the ACS. To be eligible, a nominee "must have accomplished research of unusual merit for an individual on the threshold of her or his career. Special consideration is given to independence of thought and originality in the research...." The award was first awarded in 1931, with Linus Pauling the inaugural recipient. It is sponsored by the Alpha Chi Sigma , Alpha Chi Sigma Fraternity and the Alpha Chi Sigma Educational Foundation. List of recipients SourceAmerican Chemical Society See also * List of chemistry awards References External linksAmerican Chemical Society Pure Chemistry Award Page
{{DEFAULTSORT:ACS pure chemistry award Aw ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]