J1708
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J1708
Society of Automotive Engineers standard SAE J1708 is a standard used for serial communications between ECUs on a heavy duty vehicle and also between a computer and the vehicle. With respect to Open System Interconnection model (OSI), J1708 defines the physical layer. Common higher layer protocols that operate on top of J1708 are SAE J1587 and SAE J1922. The protocol is maintained by SAE International. Description The standard defines a 2-wire 18 gauge wire cable that can run up to and operates at 9600 bit/s. A message is composed of up to 21 characters, unless the engine is stopped and the vehicle is not moving in which case transmitters are allowed to exceed the 21 byte max message length. Messages start with a Message ID (MID) character and finish with a checksum at the end. Characters are transmitted in the common 8N1 format. The hardware utilized are RS-485 transceivers wired for open collector operation through the use of a pullup and pulldown of the separate data lin ...
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J1587
SAE International, Society of Automotive Engineers standard SAE J1587 is an automotive diagnostic protocol standard developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for heavy-duty and most medium-duty vehicles built after 1985. The J1587 protocol uses different diagnostic connectors. Up to 1995, individual Original equipment manufacturer, OEMs used their own connectors. From 1996 to 2001, the 6-pin Deutsch (Interconnect Solutions), Deutsch-connector was standard. Beginning in 2001, most OEMs converted to the 9-pin Deutsch. Some OEMs still use the 6-pin Deutsch. It has mostly been used for US made vehicles, and also by Volvo. Other European brands have usually used Keyword Protocol 2000, KWP. The pinout for the 9-pin connector is: The pinout for the 6-pin connector is: SAE J1708 makes up the physical and data link layers while SAE J1587 makes up the transport and application layers with respect to the OSI model. SAE J1587 is used in conjunction with SAE J1708 for automob ...
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Checksum
A checksum is a small-sized block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity. The procedure which generates this checksum is called a checksum function or checksum algorithm. Depending on its design goals, a good checksum algorithm usually outputs a significantly different value, even for small changes made to the input. This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted. Checksum functions are related to hash functions, fingerprints, randomization functi ...
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J1922
SAE protocol J1922 is a standard for "Powertrain Control Interface for Electronic Controls Used in Medium- and Heavy-Duty Diesel On-Highway Vehicle Applications" (published December 4, 2008). This SAE Recommended Practice provides a development or possibly interim production communication protocol between engine, transmission, ABS/traction control, and retarder systems until higher speed communication links are established. See also *J1708 Society of Automotive Engineers standard SAE J1708 is a standard used for serial communications between ECUs on a heavy duty vehicle and also between a computer and the vehicle. With respect to Open System Interconnection model (OSI), J1708 defin ... External linksSAE International Website Automotive standards {{technology-stub ...
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J1939
Society of Automotive Engineers standard SAE J1939 is the vehicle bus recommended practice used for communication and diagnostics among vehicle components. Originating in the car and heavy-duty truck industry in the United States, it is now widely used in other parts of the world. SAE J1939 is used in the commercial vehicle area for connection and communication throughout the vehicle, with the physical layer defined in ISO 11898. A different physical layer is used between the tractor and trailer, specified in ISO 11992. History Originally, Controller Area Network (CAN) was not mentioned in J1939, which covered cars and tractor-trailer rigs, and with some dual and triple use 8-bit addresses assigned by the SAE J1939 board. CAN was not originally free, but its instruction set did fit in the custom instruction format of J1939. This was true as of 2000. Since then, CAN has been included, the chipset for J1939 has been clocked faster, and 16-bit addresses (PGN) have replaced 8-bit add ...
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SAE International
SAE International, formerly named the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a United States-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries. SAE International's world headquarters is in Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 20 miles north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Principal emphasis is placed on global transport industries such as aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicles. The organization adopted the name SAE International to reflect the broader emphasis on mobility. SAE International has over 138,000 global members. Membership is granted to individuals, rather than companies. Aside from its standardization efforts, SAE International also devotes resources to projects and programs in STEM education, professional certification, and collegiate design competitions. For historical legacy reasons, the label "SAE" is commonly used on tools and hardware in North America to indicate United States c ...
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Serial Communications
In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent as a whole, on a link with several parallel channels. Serial communication is used for all long-haul communication and most computer networks, where the cost of cable and synchronization difficulties make parallel communication impractical. Serial computer buses are becoming more common even at shorter distances, as improved signal integrity and transmission speeds in newer serial technologies have begun to outweigh the parallel bus's advantage of simplicity (no need for serializer and deserializer, or SerDes) and to outstrip its disadvantages ( clock skew, interconnect density). The migration from PCI to PCI Express is an example. Cables Many serial communication systems were originally designed to transfer data over relatively ...
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Electronic Control Unit
An electronic control unit (ECU), also known as an electronic control module (ECM), is an embedded system in automotive electronics that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a car or other motor vehicle. Modern vehicles have many ECUs, and these can include some or all of the following: engine control module (ECM), powertrain control module (PCM), transmission control module (TCM), brake control module (BCM or EBCM), central control module (CCM), central timing module (CTM), general electronic module (GEM), body control module (BCM), and suspension control module (SCM). These ECUs together are sometimes referred to collectively as the car's computer though technically they are all separate computers, not a single one. Sometimes an assembly incorporates several individual control modules (a PCM often controls both the engine and the transmission).
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Physical Layer
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer; The layer most closely associated with the physical connection between devices. This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the line code to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified by the physical layer. Role The physical layer defines the means of transmitting a stream of raw bits over a physical data link connecting network nodes. The bitstream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a transmission medium. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network. It is a fundamental layer underlying the higher level functions in a network, and can be i ...
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RS-485
RS-485, also known as TIA-485(-A) or EIA-485, is a standard defining the electrical characteristics of drivers and receivers for use in serial communications systems. Electrical signaling is balanced, and multipoint systems are supported. The standard is jointly published by the Telecommunications Industry Association and Electronic Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA). Digital communications networks implementing the standard can be used effectively over long distances and in electrically noisy environments. Multiple receivers may be connected to such a network in a linear, multidrop bus. These characteristics make RS-485 useful in industrial control systems and similar applications. Overview RS-485 supports inexpensive local networks and multidrop communications links, using the same differential signaling over twisted pair as RS-422. It is generally accepted that RS-485 can be used with data rates up to 10 Mbit/s or, at lower speeds, distances up to . As a rule of thumb, ...
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Open Collector
An open collector is a common type of output found on many integrated circuits (IC), which behaves like a switch that is either connected to ground or disconnected. Instead of outputting a signal of a specific voltage or current, the output signal is applied to the base of an internal NPN transistor whose collector is externalized (open) on a pin of the IC. The emitter of the NPN transistor is connected internally to the ground pin. If the output device is a MOSFET the output is called open drain and it functions in a similar way. For example, the I²C bus and 1-Wire bus are based on this concept. Function In the picture, the transistor base is labeled "IC output". This is a signal from the internal IC logic to the transistor. This signal controls the transistor switching. The external output is the transistor collector; the transistor forms an interface between the internal IC logic and parts external to the IC. On schematic component symbols, the open output is indicated wit ...
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Collision (telecommunications)
A collision is the situation that occurs when two or more demands are made simultaneously on equipment that can handle only one at any given instant.Source: from Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188 It may refer to: * Collision domain, a physical network segment where data packets can "collide" ** Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance, (CSMA/CA) used for example with wireless LANs ** Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection, (CSMA/CD) used with Ethernet * Late collision, a specific type of collision that should not occur on properly operating networks * Local collision is a collision that occurs in the network interface rather than on the network itself See also * Collision (other) * Contention (telecommunications) In statistical time division multiplexing, contention is a media access method that is used to share a broadcast medium. In contention, any computer in the network can transmit data at any time (first come-first served). ...
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